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冲突适应的发展:来自ERP的证据
其他题名Developmental differences of conflict adaptation: evidencefrom event-related potential studies
刘修英
学位类型硕士
导师施建农 ; 刘彤冉
2016-03
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词认知控制 冲突适应 儿童发展 事件相关电位
摘要冲突适应,作为认知控制的一个基本成分,是指个体在前一试次中经历冲突后会使其在当前冲突情境中能更好地解决冲突的现象,表现为刺激-刺激(S-S)的冲突适应,刺激-反应(S-R)的冲突适应,混合刺激-反应的冲突适应。根据冲突监测理论,前扣带回和额叶皮层或顶叶皮层分别负责冲突监测和冲突解决,而这些大脑皮层在整个儿童和青少年时期都是不断发展的,因此我们选取了5岁组,10岁组和成人组的被试,同时采用Flanker任务,Simon任务和Stroop任务,并采用事件相关电位技术(ERP)研究冲突适应发展的认知神经机制。一方面考察不同年龄群体在冲突适应效应大小是否存在差异,另一方面考察三个年龄群体在S-S和S-R冲突适应类型上的发展差异,以进一步全面探讨冲突适应发展的认知神经机制。
研究一采用三个实验分别考察三种类型冲突适应的发展:实验1采用Flanker任务考察S-S冲突适应的发展,5岁儿童,10岁儿童和成人在行为表现上都存在冲突适应,并且在反应时上,成人的冲突适应能力高于10儿童,10岁儿童冲突适应能力高于5岁儿童,而在正确率上,只表现出成人和10岁儿童比5岁儿童冲突适应能力更高;只有成人表现出反应时的CAE值和N2,P3潜伏期的CAE值呈现正相关。实验2采用Simon任务发现,儿童和成人都在行为上表现出冲突适应,成人的冲突适应能力高于10儿童,10岁儿童冲突适应能力高于5岁儿童,而在正确率上,只表现出成人比10岁儿童和5岁儿童冲突适应能力更高;在神经活动上,只在N2波幅上,儿童存在冲突监测加工上的适应即N2波幅在cI试次比iI试次更负,而成人只在右侧半球存在任务转换效应即N2波幅iC试次比cC试次更负;行为和脑电CAE值相关分析经校正发现,成人反应时的CAE值和N2波幅的CAE值呈现负相关;实验3采用Stroop任务发现,10岁儿童和成人都存在行为上的冲突适应,但是只在反应时上,成人的CAE值小于儿童,表明成人冲突适应能力高于儿童;行为和脑电CAE值相关分析发现,只有成人反应时的CAE值和N450波幅的CAE值呈现正相关。
研究二考察S-S和S-R冲突适应发展的异同,总体上个体在Flanker任务中比Simon任务中表现出更高的冲突适应能力,具体表现为在Simon任务中反应时的CAE值比Flanker任务更大,而正确率更小;在神经活动上,成人在Flanker任务中存在冲突监测加工的适应,即N2波幅在cI试次比iI试次更负,而在Simon任务中只存在任务转换效应即N2波幅iC试次比cC试次更负,10岁儿童在Flanker任务和Simon任务中都存在冲突适应,而只在Simon任务中存在任务转换效应,5岁儿童只在Simon任务中存在冲突适应,而在Flanker任务和Simon任务中存在任务转换效应;进一步的检验发现,只有5岁组和10岁组表现出冲突适应任务类型发展的差异,即5岁儿童和10岁儿童在Flanker任务中N2波幅的CAE值大于Simon任务。
综合以上的结果,尽管个体在S-S,S-R 和混合S-R冲突适应发展上的特点不同,但是整体上冲突适应的发展存在年龄相关的行为和神经活动的差异,成人的冲突适应能力高于儿童,年龄较大群体儿童的冲突适应能力高于较小群体;S-S和S-R冲突适应发展的差异不同,行为上,无论是儿童还是成人在S-S冲突适应能力高于S-R冲突适应,并且在神经活动上只有儿童表现出冲突适应任务类型发展的差异,即儿童表现出在S-R冲突监测的适应上高于S-S冲突监测的适应,并且只有5岁儿童表现出S-R冲突解决的适应早于S-S冲突解决的适应。
其他摘要Conflict adaptation(CA), one component of cognitive control, is often used to investigate the cognitive and brainmechanism of cognitive control. It refers to reduced conflict effect following incompatible trials than compatible trialsand it has threemain types: Stimulus-Stimulus CAand Stimulus-Response CA and mixed Stimulus-response CA. Conflict monitoring theory supposes that anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) respectively monitor conflict and resolve conflict. According to the anatomical and physiological maturation of ACC and PFC into early adulthood, and increased activation, theconflict adaptation effect size should be different in the 5 years oldchildren, 10 years old childrenand adults. The current investigation is focused on the possible age-relateddifferences of conflict adaptation in both behavioral and electrophysiological indices during the Flanker,Simon and Stroop task.
Study 1 employed three separate experiments to explore the age-related differences of S-S CA, S-R CA and mixed S-R CA: experiment 1 with Flankertask displayed that behaviorally there were CA in 5 years old children, 10 years old children and adults, and audits has better CA ability than children, older children has better CA ability than younger children in reaction time (RT), and adults and older children has better CA ability in accuracy; correlation between RT and ERPs found that there was significant relationship only for adults; experiment 2 with Simon task demonstrated that individuals showed similar CA in RT, and adults has better CA ability than both younger and older children in accuracy; for the ERPs, children showed CA, reflected by much negative N2 amplitude on cI trials than that iI trials, while adults only showed TSE on the right hemisphere, reflected by much negative N2 amplitude on cC trials than that iC trials, and correlation after correction between RT and ERPs found that there was significant relationship only for adults in the N2 amplitude; experiment 3 with Stroop task showed that children and adults has CA, and only adults has better CA ability than children, reflected by smaller CAE in RT for adults than that in 10 years old children; correlation between RT and ERPs found that there was significant relationship only for adults in the N450 amplitude.
Study 2 further investigated simultaneously the development of S-S and S-R CA, generally, individuals showed better CA ability in the Flankertask than that in the Simon task, reflected by smallerCAE value in RT and larger CAE value in accuracyin the Flanker task than that in the Simon task; for the ERPs, adults has CA in the Flanker task, reflected by much negative N2 amplitude on cI trials than that on iI trials, while in the Simon task, adults only showed switching effect, reflected by less negative N2 amplitude on cC trials than that on iC trials, and older children showed adaptation in both Flanker and Simon task, andswitching effectonly in the Simon task, and younger children only displayed CA in the Simon task, while had switching effectin both Flanker task and Simon task; both older children and younger children showed larger CAE value for N2 amplitude in the Flanker task than that in the Simon task.
Our current studyreveals the importantdevelopmental changes for S-S CA and S- R CA, though it is not as precisely as what we have predictedthat S-S CA develop earlier than S-R CA in ERP component, evidences from reaction timeand accurate rates showed that adults had better CA ability than that children, and older children had better CA ability than that younger children; N2 peak amplitude and P3 peak latency support the conclusion thatchildren showed better S-R CA ability than that S-S CA ability, and only conflict resolution adaptation in S-R came earlier than that S-S, which conforms toour expectation andcan be further used to probe the neural mechanism of cognitive control.
学科领域神经生物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19934
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中科院心理研究所
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刘修英. 冲突适应的发展:来自ERP的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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