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汉字远距离联想问题解决的特点研究——直觉式顿悟和思考式顿悟的探讨
其他题名Exploring the trait of problem solving in Chinese remote associate test—evidence of intuitive insight and thinking insight
杜秀敏
学位类型博士
导师罗劲
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词中文远距离联想测验 情绪 记忆 功能性磁共振成像
摘要远距离联想测验(RAT,Remote associate test)是研究顿悟式解决问题的重要方式之一。从创建英文远距离联想测验来研究顿悟以来,对英文RAT测验问题解决的心理机制和脑机制进行了大量的研究。但是至今还没有汉字远距离联想的实验室研究。本研究试图通过一系列行为和脑成像实验,采用汉字远距离联想测验(CRAT,Chinese Remote associate test)来考察直觉式顿悟存在的可能。首先,通过实验1和实验2的行为实验,建立了CRAT实验室研究的参考标准,并发现了人们在解决CRAT问题时可能存在一种区别于思考式(传统)顿悟的顿悟形态——直觉式顿悟。实验3和实验4的行为实验考察了CRAT的回忆特点,结果发现,直觉式顿悟和思考式顿悟的再认都显著好于非顿悟体验时的再认效果。这说明直觉式顿悟和思考式顿悟是区别于一般问题解决的一种方式。实验5和实验6考察顿悟体验和非顿悟体验的再认是否受暗示的影响,结果发现思考式顿悟的题目,如果暗示为易,则倾向错误再认为非顿悟;非顿悟的题目如果暗示为难,则更倾向错误再认为顿悟。而直觉式顿悟受暗示影响并不明显,这在一定程度上进一步说明了直觉式顿悟和思考式顿悟存在区别。实验7和实验8考察人们自发式解决CRAT题目时的脑机制。实验7发现目标字是多音字的CRAT题目相较于目标字是单音字的CRAT题目两者的激活在枕叶(尤其楔叶)、顶叶(尤其楔前叶)以及右侧前额叶等区域有差异。实验8发现直觉式顿悟相较于(简单)非顿悟问题和思考式顿悟相较于直觉式顿悟的解决过程,右侧前额叶、楔前叶、右侧颞叶等顿悟相关脑区有更多激活。 
其他摘要Remote associate test (RAT) is an important way to research problem-solving by insight. A large mount of researches about psychological and brain mechanisms were conducted since the RAT has been created. However, till now there is no laboratory study of Chinese Remote associate test (CRAT). The present study is to investigate traits of intuitive insight through a series of behavioral and brain imaging experiments by CRAT. Firstly, the referenced standards of CRAT laboratory researches were established through behavioral experiment 1 and 2. Furthermore, we found that intuitive insight is possibly a new kind of insight which is different from thinking (traditional) insight. The memorial characteristics of CRAT were investigated through experiment 3 and 4, the result showed that there was no difference between the memorial effects of intuitive and thinking insight. However, both of them were significantly higher than the memorial effect of no insight, which indicates that as the thinking insight, the intuitive insight is also different from general way of problem-solving. The experiment 5 and 6 were carried out to explore whether the recognition of insight and non-insight experience would be influenced bysuggestive information. The results found that if the items of thinking insight were suggested as easy, then they were inclined to be recognized as non-insight mistakenly; while those items of non-insight were suggested as difficult, then they were inclined to be recognized as insight, while the effect of suggestion to intuitive insight was not obvious. This further distinguished intuitive insight and thinking insight. The brain mechanism of spontaneous solving of CRAT items through experiment 7 and 8. Comparing with the CRAT items which answers are one pronunciation words, those items with polyphone answers activated occipital lobe (especially Conesus), parietal lobe and right prefrontal lobe. There were differences among brain activations of during problem solving of intuitive insight vs non-insight and intuitive insight vs thinking insight. 
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20207
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杜秀敏. 汉字远距离联想问题解决的特点研究——直觉式顿悟和思考式顿悟的探讨[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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