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自动情绪调节的年龄差异:效果、影响及内隐态度
其他题名Age differences on automatic emotion regulation:effect, cost and implicit attitude
黄河清
学位类型博士
导师韩布新
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪调节 自动情绪调节 年龄差异 内隐态度
摘要老年人的情绪反应、调节能力并不随认知功能的下降而出现退化。社会情绪选择理论认为是动机的改变使老年人更关注情绪上的愉悦感,因此他们对积极的情绪信息更敏感。已有研究发现老年人的情绪调节能力并未下降。而这些研究都是利用外显的指令要求被试压抑或放大情绪反应。随着越来越多的自动情绪调节研究证据出现,自动情绪调节这一过程的效果得到证实。对老年人来说,日常经验的积累及自动化过程对心理资源的低消耗,他们的自动情绪调节效果可能更好。对于这一推测,尚未有证据支持。基于研究者对自动情绪调节过程分为自动化情绪调节行为和情绪调节内隐态度两部分,研究一采用句子整理任务,启动被试的自动情绪调节行为,对比不同情绪调节方式对积极和消极情绪调节效果的年龄差异,发现在积极和消极情绪诱发状态下,自动调节和有意调节一样降低被试的主观感受和生理反应,两种调节方式的效果没有年龄差异。研究二进一步对比不同调节方式带来主观和生理影响的年龄差异,自动情绪调节并未带来适应不良的主观感受和生理反应,老年人对消极情绪自动调节带来的影响比青年人更小。研究三采用内隐联想测验和情绪调节态度问卷测量被试对情绪表达的内隐和外显态度,结果发现老年人对情绪表达的外显态度和青年人没有差异,但在内隐态度上,老年人对情绪控制的态度更积极。研究证实了自动调节对于积极和消极情绪调节的有效性及其对老年人的优势。 
其他摘要The emotional response and regulation ability of older adults does not show degeneration with the decline of cognitive function. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, the change of motivation makes older adults concern more about emotional pleasure. They are more sensitive to the positive emotional information consequently. Studies focused on emotional regulation ability of older adults usually used the explicit instructions to ask participant to suppress or amplify the emotional response. With more and more evidence of automatic emotion regulation coming out, the effect of automatic regulation was confirmed. For older adults, the accumulation of life experience make their emotion regulation behavior be more likely a form of automatic process. Unfortunately, there is no evidence to support this hypothesis yet. Researchers divided the process of automatic emotion regulation into two processes: implicitly represented ideas about emotion regulation and automatic emotion regulation. Based on this, Study 1 employed a sentence unscrambling task to prime the automatic regulation process. Both the subjective and physiological effects of automatic and effortful regulation were recorded during anger and amusement provocations in young and old participants. The results showed that the automatic and effortful regulations reduce the subjective experience and physiological reactivity the same way. There were no age differences in the ability to reappraisal in both automatic and effortful processes. Study 2 further contrasted the age difference of the cost of automatic and effortful processes, and found that automatic emotion regulation does not bring maladaptive subjective experience and physiological reactivity. The cost of automatic regulation towards negative emotion in older adults was less than that of young participants. Study 3 took implicit association test and the emotion regulation attitude questionnaire to inquire whether there is separation in the implicit and explicit attitudes of emotion regulation between old and young participants. It turned out that there was no difference on the explicit attitudes of emotional expression between old and young participants, while the old participants had more positive attitude of implicit emotional regulation. The findings suggest that automatic emotion regulation could provide an effective way of controlling both positive and negative emotion. Furthermore, automatic emotion regulation may have advantage for older adults when experiencing negative emotion. 
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20278
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
黄河清. 自动情绪调节的年龄差异:效果、影响及内隐态度[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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