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本族和异族面孔的情感化学习效应及其机制研究
其他题名Mechanism of Affective Learning Effects on Own Race and Other Race Faces
尚俊辰
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情感化学习 异族效应 文化差异 眼动 社会认知
摘要情感化学习(affective learning)是指,环境中的一个中性物体通过预测一个奖励或威胁性的结果来获得情感效价的过程。前人研究发现,与积极/消极信息匹配学习过的中性面孔会被评价为更积极/消极,更值得信任/不值得信任,更可爱/不可爱。前人研究多来自西方被试群体,使用材料为高加索面孔。但面孔的情感化学习是否存在异族效应,以及是否存在无意识水平的情感化学习效应,尚不得而知。本论文针对上述问题,设计了三个研究,探讨了本族和异族面孔的情感化学习效应及其机制。 研究一考查了本族和异族面孔的阈上情感化学习效应。我们首先利用最小条件下的情感化学习范式,用亚洲面孔,中国被试,得到了与前人研究一致的情感化学习效应。然后,我们使用亚洲面孔和高加索面孔为实验刺激,分别请中国被试和美国被试完成情感化学习任务。我们发现:一、中国人和美国人的情感化学习效应趋势一致;二、人们学到了与本族面孔匹配呈现过的消极和积极社会性信息;三、人们只学到了与异族面孔匹配呈现过的消极社会性信息。 研究二考查了本族和异族面孔的阈下情感化学习效应。我们利用连续闪烁抑制范式(Continuous Flash Suppression)控制情绪图片处于不可见状态,从热情度,信任度,能力三个方面考查阈下情感化学习效应。首先,使用亚洲面孔为实验刺激时,我们发现中国被试对面孔热情度的评分受到阈下积极情感信息的影响。然后,我们使用亚洲面孔和高加索面孔作为实验刺激,考查中国人和美国人的阈下情感化学习效应。我们发现:一、中国人对异族面孔热情度的评分受到阈下积极情感信息的影响;二、中国人对面孔的信任度,能力的评分存在内团体贬低;三、美国人对面孔热情度,信任度,能力的评分都受到阈下情绪信息的影响,其中,热情度受影响最大。 研究三考查了最小条件下的情感化学习中人们对本族和异族面孔的注意分配。我们利用眼动技术探讨学习和判断阶段中国人对面孔的注视模式。首先,我们使用亚洲面孔作为实验刺激。我们发现:一、学习阶段,人们对消极句子以及中性句子匹配呈现的面孔的注视时间,注视点个数显著多于积极句子匹配的面孔;二、学习和判断阶段,人们注视眼睛最多,其实是鼻子,最后是嘴巴。然后,我们使用亚洲面孔和高加索面孔作为实验刺激,不仅记录人们对面孔的注视模式,而且比较学习阶段人们注视本族和异族面孔时的瞳孔直径变化。我们发现:一、学习阶段,人们对本族面孔的注视点个数多于异族面孔,注视异族面孔时的瞳孔直径变化百分率大于本族面孔。说明人们自动对本族面孔进行了更深层次的加工,而且对异族面孔的学习需要更多的认知努力;二、学习阶段,人们注视消极和中性句子匹配的异族面孔时间显著长于积极句子匹配的异族面孔。但是,人们注视消极句子匹配的本族面孔的时间长于中性或积极句子匹配的本族面孔。 总结来说,本论文从实验材料,技术手段,被试文化背景三个方面拓展了情感化学习方面的研究。发现本族和异族面孔的阈上和阈下情感化学习效应都存在差异。而且,面孔种族和情绪刺激的效价对学习阶段的注意分配有不同的影响。本论文为情感化学习以及异族效应的理论提供了有益补充。
其他摘要Affective learning is the process by which a neutral object in the environment acquires value or valenced meaning via its ability to predict a rewarding or threatening outcome. Previous research suggested that people are likely to judge a neutral face as more positive or negative, more trustworthy or less trustworthy, more likeable or dislikeable, after the face is paired with positive or negative information. The past studies were all based on Western participants and the stimuli were all Caucasian faces. However, it is unclear whether there is other-race effect in affective learning, furthermore, whether affective learning depends on awareness. In the present research, we investigated the mechanism of affective learning effects on own-race and other-race faces, via three studies. In Study 1, we explored affective learning effects on own-race and other-race faces occurred consciously. First, we adopted the minimal affective learning paradigm and the stimuli were only Asian faces. The results of Chinese people confirmed the classical affective learning effect. Afterwards, we investigated affective learning effects on own-race and other-race faces between Chinese and European Americans. The findings are as follows: (1) the patterns of learning effects were similar between Chinese and American participants; (2) both Chinese and Americans learned positive and negative social information paired with own-race faces; (3) both Chinese and Americans tended to associate other-race faces with negative social information. In Study 2, we tested whether affective learning can occur without awareness. We adopted Continuous Flash Suppression paradigm to render emotional faces invisible. We measured affective learning effects on three dimensions: warmth, trustworthiness, and competence. First, we used Asian face stimuli. For Chinese participants, judgments of warmth were influenced by invisible positive faces. Next, we used Asian and Caucasian face stimuli and tested unconscious affective learning effects for Chinese and European Americans. We found that: (1) for Chinese people, judgments of warmth about other-race faces were influence by invisible positive faces; (2) Chinese participants showed significant in-group derogation when making judgments of trustworthiness and competence. (3) for American participants, judgments of warmth, trustworthiness and competence were all influenced by invisible facial expressions. Warmth was the most sensitive to invisible affective information. In study 3, we investigated how people divide attention toward own-race and other-race faces, during minimal affective learning. We used eye-tracking to measure eye fixation patterns in Chinese participants during learning and test phase. First, only Asian face stimuli were used. We found that: (1) during learning phase, people looked more at faces paired with negative and neutral sentences, comparing with faces paired with positive sentences; (2) during learning phase and test phase, people look at the eyes most of the time, following by the nose, and the mouth. Thereafter, we used Asian and Caucasian face stimuli, and measured eye movements and pupillary responses to Asian and Caucasian faces. We found that: (1) during learning phase, people make more fixations on own-race faces than other-race faces, and pupil dilations were larger when viewing other-race than own-race faces. This suggests a more automatic, deeper processing of own-race faces, and people spent a greater cognitive effort when learning other-race faces; (2) during learning phase, people looked more at other-race faces paired with negative and neutral sentences than their positive counterparts. However, they look more at own-race faces paired with negative sentences than their neutral or positive counterparts. To sum up, comparing with previous studies, the present research goes further in three aspects: types of stimuli, technology, and culture of participants. The results comfirmed that affective learning effects of own-race faces were different with that of other-race faces, no matter whether learning was conscious or not. In addition, both race and unconditional stimuli (US) can influence how people divide attention toward faces, to different extent. This paper makes important contributions to the theories of affective learning and other-race effect.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20341
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
尚俊辰. 本族和异族面孔的情感化学习效应及其机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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