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情绪对项目记忆和来源记忆的影响
其他题名Effects of Emotion on Item Memory and Source Memory
汪波
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪 项目记忆 来源记忆 编码阶段 巩固阶段
摘要最近几十年以来,越来越多的认知心理学家开始关注情绪对情景记忆的影响。情景记忆包含项目记忆和来源记忆两个成分。通过在记忆编码阶段采用词语诱发情绪,在记忆巩固阶段采用视频短片诱发情绪,本研究采用8个实验考察了如下几个问题:1)编码阶段诱发情绪是否影响项目记忆及来源记忆?2)巩固阶段诱发情绪是否影响项目记忆及来源记忆?3)编码阶段诱发情绪对项目记忆及来源记忆的影响的时间进程是怎样的?4)巩固阶段诱发情绪对项目记忆和来源记忆的影响的时间进程是怎样的?主要发现是:1)编码阶段诱发情绪会促进自由回忆,但对再认记忆没有影响。编码阶段诱发情绪对来源记忆的影响具有任务和效价依赖性,即在刺激来源数目较多的情况下,正性情绪能够增强来源记忆。2)在特定条件下(诱发情绪后保持休息状态),巩固阶段诱发情绪能够促进女性的再认记忆,但不影响女性的来源记忆。巩固阶段诱发情绪对男性的项目记忆和来源记忆均不存在影响。3)在两周的时间范围内,编码阶段诱发情绪对项目记忆和来源记忆的影响模式不会随着时间的推移而改变,无论在哪种延迟条件下负性情绪均会增强自由回忆但会降低再认记忆,但负性情绪对来源记忆没有影响。无论在哪种延迟条件下正性情绪有增强自由回忆的趋势,但是对再认记忆和来源记忆均没有影响。4)在一周的时间范围内,巩固阶段诱发情绪对项目记忆和来源记忆存在影响,且这种影响具有时间依赖性。在较短和较长的延迟时间条件下,正性情绪呈现出促进项目记忆巩固的趋势,但在中等延迟时间条件下,正性情绪反而呈现出损害项目记忆巩固的趋势。在较短的延迟条件下,负性情绪对来源记忆不存在影响,但随着时间的推移,负性情绪会呈现出损害来源记忆巩固的趋势。本研究对建立情绪影响项目记忆和来源记忆的理论模型具有参考意义,对在教学情景下如何诱发情绪以促进记忆巩固也具有现实指导意义。此外,本研究提示项目记忆和来源记忆具有不同的出现显著下降的临界时间点,该结果扩展了包括艾宾浩斯遗忘曲线在内的传统记忆理论。
其他摘要Over the past several decades the effect of emotion on memory has received increased attention from cognitive psychologists. This study, in which emotion is induced respectively by words and video clips in encoding and consolidation stages, is concerned with the following four questions via eight experiments: 1) Does emotion induced in encoding stage affect item memory and source memory? 2) Does emotion induced in consolidation stage affect item memory and source memory? 3) What is the time course of the effect of emotion induced in encoding stage on item memory and source memory? 4) What is the time course of the effect of emotion induced in consolidation stage on item memory and source memory? The major findings are the following: 1) Emotion induced during encoding is beneficial for free recall but has no effect on recognition. In addition, emotion induced during encoding has a task-dependent effect on source memory, that is, positive emotion enhances source memory when there are more than two sources. 2) Under the specific condition that participants remain in rest after emotion elicitation, emotion induced during consolidation stage contributes to recognition, but not source memory, for females.
However, emotion induced during consolidation stage has no  effect on either recognition or source memory for males. 3) Within a 2-week period, the pattern for effect of emotion induced during encoding on item and source memory remains unchanged. Under all the delay conditions, negative emotion enhances free recall but impairs recognition and has no effect on source memory; there is a trend that positive emotion enhances free recall, but it has no effect on recognition and source memory. 4) Within a one-week period, emotion induced during consolidation stage has a time-dependent effect on item memory and source memory. Under relatively short and long delay conditions, positive emotion tend to be beneficial for the consolidation of item memory; however, under medium delay condition a trend occurs that positive emotion impairs the consolidation of item memory. Under relatively short delay conditions, negative emotion has no effect on the consolidation of source memory; however, with the passage of  time, however, there is a trend that negative emotion impairs the consolidation of source memory. This study has theoretical significance for formulation of a theoretical model  on how emotion affects item memory and source memory. This study also has practical implications for how to induce emotions under educational settings to improve memory consolidation. Additionally, this study suggests that item memory and source memory have different critical time point at which significant decrease occurs, which is an extension to traditional memory theories including Ebbinghaus forgetting curve.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20368
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
汪波. 情绪对项目记忆和来源记忆的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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