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信息结构如何影响语义和句法加工
王琳
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳 ; Peter Hagoort ; Marcel Bastiaansen
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词信息结构 "刚刚好"的语言表征 语义整合 句法加工 事件相关电位
摘要 
信息结构通过标记对话双方的重要信息而促进语言交流。它将信息分为焦点(即双方当前所关注的重要的信息)和背景(即双方已经知道的信息)。本研究采用ERP(Event-related Potentials,事件相关电位)技术,结合"刚刚好"的语言加工原则,通过三个实验考察了信息结构如何影响实时的语言加工。实验一和实验二分别通过文本阅读中的问答句对和口语对话中的语境和重读来标记信息结构,考察了信息结构对语义加工深度的影响。这两个实验以经典的N400成分作为语义加工深度的指标,比较了语义违反在焦点(重读或非重读)和非焦点(重读或非重读)条件下诱发的N400效应。结果发现在文本阅读中的焦点信息以及在口语对话中重读的焦点信息都诱发了较其他条件更大的N400效应。这些结果表明信息结构影响了语义整合。实验三考察了文本阅读中"问答句对"标记的信息结构对句法加工深度的影响。实验以P600成分作为句法加工的指标,比较了细微的数的违反和明显的短语结构违反在焦点和非焦点条件下诱发的P600效应。结果表明在细微的句法违反条件下,焦点信息诱发了显著的P600效应,而非焦点信息则没有该效应;然而,在明显的结构违反条件下,焦点和非焦点信息诱发了相似的P600效应。这些结果表明信息结构只对加工细微的句法违反起到了调控作用,当句法违反非常突显的时候,信息结构的调控作用则不会发生。本论文通过三个实验表明,信息结构能够引导人们将更多的认知资源分配到焦点信息上,从而促进焦点信息的语义和句法整合;而未被标记为焦点的信息则获得相对较少的认知资源,从而导致"刚刚好"的语言表征。另外,信息结构只有在当前信息与周用语境没有严重冲突的时候才会起训控作用,否则这种调控作用将被阻断。
其他摘要Information structure can be used to facilitate the communication by highlighting the relevant information between interlocutors. It divides the information into two elements: focused information is the highly relevant, important information to the interlocutors, while non-focused information is the information that is already activated in their representations. In the current three studies, together with a “good enough” language processing principle, we used ERPs (Event-related Potentials) to investigate the online language processing guided by information structure.
The first two experiments examined how information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Information structure was market by question-answer-pairs during text reading in the first experiment, while the second experiment employed question context as well as the position of pitch accent in the answers to mark information structure. We took the N400 effect elicited by semantic anomaly as the index of the depth of semantic processing. We found that the focused information in the first experiment and the accented focus in the second experiment produced the largest N400 effect than the other conditions. The results suggest that information structure immediately influenced the semantic integration.
In the third experiment, we investigated the influence of information structure on the depth of syntactic processing. As in the first experiment, question-answer-pairs were used to mark information structure. Moreover, two types of syntactic violation were created in focus or non-focus position, one of which was a subtle number agreement violation and the other was a phrase structure violation. The depth of syntactic processing was manifested in the P600 component. For the number violation, we only found a P600 effect for the focus condition but not for the non-focus condition, whereas for the structure violation, both focused and non-focused information elicited P600 effects. The results suggest that information structure only modulates the processing of subtle syntactic violation, whereas this modulation will be overridden when the violation is very salient.
In three experiments, this thesis indicates that information structure modulates more cognitive resources to the focused information to facilitate both semantic and syntactic processing, while the non-focused information receive less resources and attain shallow processing, resulting in “good enough” representation. Moreover, information structure only plays a role when there is no obvious incongruence between the current information and the context, otherwise this modulation will be overridden.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20396
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王琳. 信息结构如何影响语义和句法加工[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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