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情绪启动效应的心理加工机制
其他题名On the Nature of the Affective Priming Effect
王思睿
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2011-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪启动效应 命名任务 中文刺激材料 编码易化机制
摘要

情绪启动效应(affective priming effect)指个体对与启动刺激情绪效价相似的目标刺激反应更快、更敏感或错误率更低。情绪启动研究作为一种探讨情绪和评价自动激活的有效手段一直是认知和社会心理学关注的重点之一。然而目前该领域的研究者对情绪启动效应的心理加工机制问题上仍然存在着较大的争议。本论文以情绪启动命名任务作为主要研究方法,以中文作为主要实验刺激材料,旨在对情绪启动心理加工机制加以探索。本研究分别考察了编码易化机制以及反应冲突机制与情绪启动效应的关系。基于实验结果本论文提出,编码易化机制作用于加工的编码阶段,是情绪启动产生的必要条件;反应冲突机制作用于反应选择阶段,会对情绪启动产生削弱作用。 本研究设计了两个研究8个实验,研究一通过改变启动刺激呈现时间、启动刺激与目标刺激间隔时间等加工条件,改变汉字的发音规则性等刺激性质,以及使用单纯命名、条件化命名等反应方式,深入探讨了情绪启动效应的加工机制。结果发现,对目标词的语义加工是情绪启动效应产生的必要条件,当对刺激的加工深入到语义层面,可以在命名范式下获得稳定的情绪启动效应。结果提供了编码易化机制的证据。研究二进一步通过改变启动刺激命名绑定、启动-目标项目之间韵母、首字发音相似性等条件,结果发现当启动-目标之间命名反应冲突增强时,情绪启动效应被削弱,表明反应冲突机制对情绪启动效应有干扰作用。研究结果支持情绪启动效应包含作用于刺激编码阶段的编码易化机制和作用于反应选择阶段的反应冲突机制。 上述发现有助于深化对情绪启动效应心理加工过程的理解,具有重要的理论意义。

其他摘要

In a typical affective priming experiment with naming task, two positive or negative stimuli (named prime and target) are presented in quick succession and participants are asked to read the target as fast as possible. The affective priming effect refers to mean response times (and/or error rates) were lower for affectively congruent pairings compared to incongruent ones. Although this finding has been replicated in several studies, much of recent research is being fueled by a debate on the mechanism underlying affective priming effects. This study adopted Chinese language as stimuli to explore the underling mechanism of affective priming in the naming task. Results of current study yielded evidence for the dual account, a mechanism combined of encoding facilitation and response competition for affective priming effects in the naming paradigm. In current research, we used Chinese characters and words as primes and targets. Since semantic encoding is mandatory while naming Chinese characters or words (in contrast to alphabetic languages), the present result indirectly supports the hypothesis that repeated failures to find such effects using alphabetic languages were due to non-mandatory semantic processing while naming. This study includes 2 parts of 8 experiments: In study 1, we investigated the relation between the semantic process of target and the affective priming effect. In study 2, we tested the response conflict mechanism between the prime and target in naming task. The results indicated that: (1) the semantic process for targets is the prerequisite for the affective priming in the naming task. This favors the implication that the relevant processes must be located at the level of semantic memory and encoding facilitation between valence-congruent concepts is the requirement for affective priming. (2) The affective priming effect in a pronunciation task can be better explained by a dual mechanism combined of encoding facilitation and response competition than by a single encoding facilitation mechanism. And the relation between these two processes is that they cancel each other out. (3) The significant affective priming of naming responses can be obtained in a Chinese language context. These findings not only contribute to the understanding of the nature of affective priming effect, but also have the theoretical significance.

学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20400
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王思睿. 情绪启动效应的心理加工机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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