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顿悟式汉字组块破解程中的多重困难一来自行为和脑成像的证据
其他题名Multiple Difficulties in Insightful Chinese Character Chunk Decomposition Process: Evidences from Behavior and Brain Imaging
吴丽丽
学位类型博士
导师罗劲
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词顿悟问题解决 多重困难 组块破解 事件相关电位 功能磁共振成像
摘要 
多重困难理论是顿悟问题解决过程中的一个重要理论。它认为顿悟问题解决过程要受到不止一个困难因素的阻碍。这使得顿悟问题解决过程的研究从"什么因素阻碍了问题解决"转向了"哪几个因素阻碍了问题解决"。尽管多重困难理论从一个全新的角度来揭示顿悟问题解决的思维过程,但是仍然有一些问题无法回答。比如,在解决问题过程中,多个困难的地位是否等同,困难因素之间的相互关系是什么样的,人们如何做出恰当的反应来克服不同的困难等。而且,顿悟问题解决的多重困难理论也缺乏来自神经科学的证据。我们相信,脑成像的技术手段有助于我们深入了解多重困难的作用机制,以及人们如何对多个困难做出恰当的反应,从而深入揭示顿悟问题解决的思维过程。本研究采用汉字组块破解任务研究顿悟问题解决过程。实验结果发现:首先,我们在研究一和研究二中发现,顿悟式的汉字组块破解过程受到不止一个困难因素的阻碍。阻碍因素主要有两个,组块的熟悉度和组块的知觉紧密程度。研究一也发现,在破解过程中,为了顺利完成组块重构,视觉输入需要被抑制,表现为枕区Alpha波活动增强。第二,在研究三中,我们鉴别了影响汉字组块破解的两个因素,知觉紧密程度和组块熟悉度,通过控制这两个因素来探索不同因素在组块破解过程中的作用。在实验中,熟悉度采用真假字控制(熟悉条件:真字,不熟悉条件:假字),组块紧密度采用不同结构的汉字控制(紧密:汉字组块内没有明显的部件,松散:汉字组块由部件组成)。实验结果发现,组块熟悉度和紧密度会阻碍破解过程,表现为熟悉的组块相对于不熟悉的组块更难破解,紧密的组块相对于松散的组块更难破解。脑成像结果显示,组块熟悉度需要一个抑制过程来克服,由前额叶完成;知觉紧密程度需要视觉-空间信息处理过程,涉及顶叶区域的参与。同时,这两个困难因素之间存在着显著地交互作用。而且,组块熟悉度和组块紧密程度之间存在显著的交互作用,破解紧密组块时,熟悉度的影响大,破解松散组块时,熟悉度的影响比较小。说明在问题解决过程中,人们需要克服不只一个困难因素
其他摘要The hypothesis of multiple causes of difficulty is important in insight problem solving. According to this theory, the insight problem is difficult because the solution is suppressed by more than one obstacle. Thus the problems keep unsolved after one potential obstacle has been removed since other obstacles still stay. The proposition of this theory transforms the insight problem solving studies from “Which factor blocks the problem solving” to “What factors block the way of insight problem solving”.
Although multiple difficulty theory has unraveled the insight problem solving from a new dimension, there are still some questions unanswered, such as whether different factors make the same contribution to the solution generation process or not, how different factors interact with each other, and how people make particular response to pave the way for the final solution. Additionally, there is a shortage of brain imaging research evidence for the multiple difficulty theory. We believe that the brainimaging approaches, such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) could be a window for us to observe how different factors interact with each other as well as how people make proper response in insight problem solving.
The current study aimed to investigate how multiple difficulties affect the insight problem solving process through Chinese character chunk decomposition paradigm. The main findings are as follows:
Firstly, we identified that the Chinese character decomposition process could be suppressed by two factors, that is, the chunk familiarity and chunk tightness. The first study also revealed that in order to successfully finish the representation restructuring in dechunking, the activation of visual cortex should be inhibited to some extent, indicating by increased alpha activity in the posterior occipital area.
Secondly, we identified and controlled two distinct difficulty factors – chunk familiarity and chunk tightness – in the third study to compare the effect from different factors on problem solving. We controlled the chunk familiarity by using real or pseudo characters (familiar: real character; unfamiliar: pseudo character), and controlled the chunk tightness through characters with or without meaningful components (loose chunk: components in the character have independent visual representation and carry meanings; tight chunk: components in the character do not have independent representation or obviouse meaning). The result showed that both chunk familiarity and perceptual tightness would block the dechunking process, leading to a longer reaction time. The effect from chunk familiarity required an inhibition mechanism to overcome while the chunk tightness could be resolved through a visual spatial process. Further more, there was significant interaction effect between chunk familiarity and chunk tightness. Specifically, the effect from chunk familiarity was large when the perceptual tightness was high, while small when the perceptual tightness was low.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20416
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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吴丽丽. 顿悟式汉字组块破解程中的多重困难一来自行为和脑成像的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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