The dual-systems theory believes that self-control is affected jointly by the impulsion system and the self-control system. Three to nine-years old is an critical stage of self-control development. Most of the researches focused on the influence of cognitive performance and emotion management on self-control development, and neglected the interaction between the impulsion system and self-control system. In addition, it is conceived widely that self-control is associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Some recent research claimed that the core damage of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on three to nine-year old is the lack of self- control. In the Dual-systems model, the interaction between self-control regulation and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were not explored completely. Being one of the most commonly seen neural disorder, Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder for children from 3-9 years old was not given enough attention in the previous studies. To bridge the gap, this research are going to explores the developmental pattern of self-control of children who are three to nine years old and examines the interaction between self-control and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder based on the dual-system model. The samples of this research are children from three to nine years old and their parents ranging from six Chinese provinces (Ningxia, Anhui, Shanxi, Sichuan, Fujian and Jilin). The samples were categorized by genders, school grades (from pre-school to 3rd grade), and geographic regions (urban and rural areas in China). Following the sub-layer variable of methodology, 1390 sample (688 boys and 702 girls) were selected in this research. Using the age of six as a threshold, samples are grouped into preschoolers (635 children) groups and school-age children groups (755 children). DSSCSC has been selected to examine the dimension of self-control and impulsion, and ADHD-RS-IV has been selected to explore the degree of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The results of study showed that depends on ages the pace of self-control development and impulsion system development differs at different periods within the age range of 3-9. Self-control development has a rapid developmental period between 7-9 years old while impulsion system does not have a obvious rapid development phase. The school-age children shown significantly better self-control comparing with the preschoolers. Concerned with gender, girls shown better self-control than boys generally. Concerned with ages it showed that age plays a significant role on children before seven. On the contrary, impulsion did not vary much as age increased. Impulsion affects boys more than their female counterparts. The results of the second research demonstrated that there is a negative correlation between self-control and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and impulsion shown the positive correlation. The research illustrated that self-control and impulsion can be used as negative and positive factors to predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Impulsion is relatively more associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder than self-control. Self-control system restrains Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder via Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In conclusion, to children who ages from three to nine-year olds, their self-control ability are getting betters when their age growth. School-age children shown obvious better self-control than preschoolers. Concerned with self-control, girls shows better self-control than boys generally. As of the correlation between self-development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, self-control reduces the likelihood of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder while impulsion increased Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has a closer correlation with impulsion than self-control. Self-control system restrains Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder via the mediation effect of the impulsion system.