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汉字识别中部件和部件组合的频率效应
其他题名Frequency effect of chatacter constituents and their combinations in the recognitionof chinese chatacters
韩布新
学位类型博士
导师荆其诚 ; 林仲贤
1993-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词汉字识别 部件 部件组合 组字次数 部件频率 部件组合频率 频率效应
摘要

    汉字识别是中文阅读的基本环节之一。对于汉字识别信息加工过程的研究,有助于我们了解人类阅读行为的细节,同时也可为汉字信息的计算机自动处理提供有益的帮助.
    本研究从与汉字熟悉性有关的频率效应入手,围绕汉字识别中整体和部分的关系,探讨部件和部件组合在汉字识别中的作用.整个研究分三个阶段。第一阶段是部件频率和部件组合频率的计算机统计分析盆在此基础上进行第二阶段的实验研究;第三阶段根据实验研究结果提出汉字识别信息加工的理论模型.
第一阶段:部件频率和部件组合频率的统计研究
    此阶段研究的主要目的是为下一步实验研究选择刺激材料准备数据.应用‘汉字属性信息数据库”和汉字dBASE-DI的研究发现部件和部件组合在汉字集合中呈不均匀分布,同时形成了两个数据库:‘部件频率数据库”和‘部件组合频率数据库”。
第二阶段:汉字识别中部件和部件组合频率效应的实验研究
    此阶段研究分两部分进行,每一部分包括三个实验。
    第一部分实验研究:部件频率的作用
    实验一:探讨合体字的两个组合部件的部件频率对于整字识别反应时的影响,以及两个部件作用的相对大小.结果表明识别低频字时第一部件频率有易化作用,这种作用在第二部件频率为中等水平时最明显.
    实验二:探讨破坏汉字整体性,将合体字的两个组成部件先后呈现时,部件频率对整字识别反应时的影响,以同实验一对照,结果表明第二部件频率有干扰作用。
实验三:将被试任务限定在局部加工一一识别两部件合体字中的某一部件,观察部件频率作用与整字识别和整合识别时有何变化.结果表明两部件频率均表现出易化作用。
第二部分实验研究:部件组合频率的作用    实验四:研究在部件组合频率的不同水平下,识别两部件合体字的反应时变化情况,结果表明部件组合频率对高频字的识别反应时有易化作用。
实验五:研究先后呈现合体字两组成部件时,部件组合频率对整字识别反应时的影响,发现在整合识别中,部件组合频率仍表现为易化作用。
实验六:研究部件组合频率作为局部属性,对三部件左右型合体字识别反应时的影响.结果表明左边的部件组合频率表现出易化作用;右边的部件组合频率表现出显著的干扰作用.
第三阶段:理论总结
    根据以上六个实验的研究结果,提出了汉字识别信息加工过程中“频率作用的同层效应模型”,从整体和局部关系讨论刺激材料不同层次的频率属性对不同层次认知加工的影响。
  通过上述三个阶段的研究工作,本研究得出以下三点结论:
1.部件和部件组合频率在汉字集合中呈不均匀分布.
2.部件频率和部件组合频率对汉字识别有易化和干扰两方面的重要作用。处于左边或上边的部件或部件组合表现出易化作用;处于右边或下边的部件或部件组合则有干扰作用。部件频率和部件组合频率的作用受整字频率影响。
3.在频率指标上,整体和局部的关系表现为知觉目标与刺激的同层效应:整体〔整字频率)特征对于整体目标的加工(整字识别)有易化作用,对于局部目标的加工(部件识别)有干扰作用;而局部〔部件频率和部件组合频率)特征对于整体加工则有干扰作用和易化作用两方面,对于局部加工有易化作用。

其他摘要

Chinese character recognition ie one of the basic stages in Chinese reading. Research  progress on this topic,ill contribute to our naderstanding of the details of human reading beh8vior.It m8y 8180 888181 the development of computer information processing of Chinese language.
    This study consist of three stages to investigate the frequency effect of character constituents and their combinations in the recognition of Chinese characters, especially abort the relationship between the whole and the parts is the recognition of characters.
    In the let stage, The aim was to prepare the data to be need for selecting the stimuli in the ezperimental research. With’the Databaae’,  of Attributes of Chinese Characters’,it was  found that the character constitaents and their combinations had an uneven distribution in the Chinese character set. Two databases for the frequency of character constituents and their combinations were produced.
    In the 2nd stage 6 ezperiments were dieigned using different paradigms. Ezperimentl found that the frequency of 2 component constituents of Chinese characters had different effect on the naming RT of the whole character. The 1st constituents showed significant facilitating effect when recognizing the low frequency charater.In ezperiment2, the sub」ects  were asked to name the whole character after presenting the 2 constituents separately,ith a certain interval.The frequency of the 2nd character constituents had significant inhibitory effect. Ezperiment 3 found that the frequency of both constituents all have facilitating effect upon the   RT when the subject were asked to name the constituents.
    The result of ezperiment 4 indicated that the frequency of combinations of charater constituents had significant facilitating effects upon the RT when the task was to name the  whole character,ith 2 components. In ezperiment 6, presenting the 2 constituents eepretely,the  frequency of combination of charater constituents also show significant facilitating effect.In ezperiment 8,the task was to name the tight一left type character combining,ith S charater constituents.It were fonad that the frequency of constituent combination had  facilitating  effect when they were on the left position of the whole charater,or inhibitory effect when   they were on the right position.
    In the 3rd stage, one theoretical models were proposed on the basis of the ezperimental resalte.That was’the ieolevel frequency effect  model’,which diacneaiag the differen‘frequency effects of different levels of  stimuli apon the different congnitive processes.
The conclusions of all the research are us follows:
(1) Chinene character constituents and their combinations had uneven diatribution in the Chinese charater set.
(2) Chinese character constituents and’their combination  had  facilitating effect When they Were on the top or left position of the Whole charater,ar inhibitory effect When they Were on the bottom or tight position.
(3) The relationship between the Whole and the part of Chinese  characters,as shown by the frequency effect, dependa upon the level of stimuli and the cognitive process. For the global process, global frequency showed facilitating effect while partial frequency showed inhibitory   or facilitating effect; For partial process, global frequency showed inhibitory effect while partial frequency showed facilitating effect.

学科领域认知心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21265
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
韩布新. 汉字识别中部件和部件组合的频率效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,1993.
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