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汉语语句韵律特征与句法、语义关系的实验研究
郑波
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2001-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业普通心理学
摘要

    大多数语言学家都认为,语义是一种深层内容,韵律与句法则分别是语义内容的语音和语法表达形式,因此,深层的语义内容会对浅层的韵律、句法表达形式起决定性作用。从句法和韵律生成的角度考虑,韵律的产生要晚于句法的形成;同时,它也在很大程度上受到句法形式的制约。当然,韵律又必须在一定程度上表现语义内容和句法形式。但是,韵律并非最低层次,因为它必需借助于物理层的声学参数来体现。因此,汉语语句韵律特征与句法、语义的关系包括两个方面:一方面,韵律特征的形成受到句法结构和语义表达需要的制约;另一方面,在汉语语句语法分析、语义信息加工过程中,韵律特征起着较大的作用。因此,本研究从这两个角度展开。第一部分研究正常汉语语句中韵律特征(主要是常规重音)的形成如何受语句句法、语义的制约;第二部分主要研究韵律特征在汉语歧义语句加工中的解歧作用。
    本研究得到的主要的结果和创新点可以归纳如下:
    1.初步的心理知觉实验为六条基本常规重音分布规则提供了支持证据,常规重音与强调重音在重读程度的感知上是不同的,常规重音的重读程度介乎强调重音和非重音之间,并且常规重音与非重音更为接近。常规重音与强调重音的声学语音线索极其相似,但有着程度上的不同;音高的高音点上升和音节时长的延长都是常规重音和强调重音的重要声学线索,但是时长的变化更加自由。
    2.采用中等规模语料库,使用文本自动句法分析、韵律知觉标注和声学测量的方法构建出包含言语句法信息、韵律信息和声学语音学信息在内的关系数据库,并结合心理统计方法,探讨句法一韵律一声学相关物之间的关系。在不同句法层级上分别对主谓结构、述宾结构、述补结构、偏正结构和介宾结构中句法成分及句法成分所处的位置与重音知觉和停顿知觉的关系进行了系统分析。结果发现常规重音分布规则普遍存在于这些句法结构中,但与感性经验获得结论并不完全相同,位置效应的作用较为明显,并且其声学表现也有一定的差异。
    3.歧义实验结果表明,如果提供合适的语境,在发音过程中,人能够运用韵律手段提供解歧信息;而听者在理解话语时也能够有效利用这一信息,达到对歧义句语义解歧的目的。在对歧义句进行适当归类的基础上,发现韵律对不同类型歧义句解歧效果不一。对层次切分歧义句和指代歧义句的深入研究表明,歧义音节前后停顿时长的变化是消解层次切分歧义的最主要的手段;发音人消解指代歧义的基本手段是在所指名词上设置相应的重音,其最主要的声学相关物是所指名词时长的延长。

其他摘要

Most of linguists think that semantics is deep component, while prosody and syntax are phonetic form and syntactic form of the semantic component respectively. Therefore, the semantic component plays important roles in determining the surface of prosody and syntax expression. The process of prosody production is late than that of creation of syntax production, meanwhile syntactic form restricts the creation of prosody to a great extent. Surely, prosody must express semantic component and syntactic forms. However, prosody is not the lowest layer, it needs phonetic cues to realize. So, the relationship between prosodic feature and syntax and semantic includes two sides: production of prosodic feature is conditioned by the syntactic structure and expression of semantic; on the other hand, the prosodic feature plays important roles in the processes of syntactic analysis and semantic comprehension. This research is designed based on such two sides. In the first part, how the syntax and semantic of sentences restrict the production of prosodic feature (regular accent especially) has been investigated in Mandarin; in the second part, the roles of prosodic feature in disambiguity and the mechanism of disambiguity have been explored in Chinese sentences.
The main works and results in this thesis are followings:
(1) The research verified six rules of the distribution of the regular accent and investigated the stressed  degree to the  different kinds of accents-regular accent and  emphatic accent  by  psycho-phonetic experiments. The results support all of the rules; meanwhile, the two kinds of accents are perceptually different in emphatic degree, and the stressed degree of regular accent is situated between that of emphatic accent and that of non-accent. The acoustic cues of two kinds of accents are similar. Both rising of high point and lengthening of syllable duration are phonetic cues of regular accent and emphatic accent. The variations of syllable duration are freer.
(2) Using large corpus, the. thesis build up a database by syntactic analysis, prosody labeling and acoustic measurement. The database includes syntactic, prosodic and acoustic information. Based on the database and statistical analysis, the relationship between prosody and syntax and semantic is explored in different syntactic levels. The results include:① The distribution rules of regular accent are universal in most of syntactic structures, and all rules obtained by experience are not complete correct; ② the location effect is significant, and acoustic cues of location effect are different.
(3) The results of disambiguity experiments show that: }If speakers are given appreciate context, he/she will provide disambiguation information by prosody;② Listeners have ability to make full use of this prosody to help comprehension to ambiguous sentences;@The disambiguation effects of prosody are different in different kinds of ambiguous sentences; .The variations of breaks in front of ambiguous syllable and behind it are the main methods in structural ambiguous sentences;⑤ Disambiguating demonstrative ambiguous sentences the important means is setting up accent on the corresponding noun, the fundamental acoustic correlate is duration lengthening of corresponding noun.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21312
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郑波. 汉语语句韵律特征与句法、语义关系的实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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