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语篇情境多样性对新词语义整合的影响
其他题名The impact of variable episodic contexts on the integration of the novel word into semantic network
张美超
学位类型硕士
导师杨玉芳
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
关键词词汇学习 语义表征 情境多样性 类别关系 主题关系 ERP
摘要

语篇背景学习是词汇学习的重要方式,学习背景多样性会促进新词的学习效果。然而,语篇背景中的情境背景多样性是如何影响新词整合到已有的语义网络仍不清楚。 本研究采用
ERP 技术和语义启动范式,操纵学习背景中的情境多样性,通过两个实验考察上述问题。本研究主要探讨语义网络中两种重要的语义关系:主题关系和类别关系。实验一考察情境多样性对新词主题关系建立的影响。被试通过阅读单情境语篇和多情境语篇推断学习新词的含义。在实验一的词汇判断任务中,习得的新词作为启动词,概念一致、主题相关情境均一致、主题相关多情境一致、主题相关情境均不一致以及无关词作为目标词。ERP 结果表明在单情境和多情境学习条件下,与无关词相比, 对应概念和学习情境一致的主题相关词 (单情境:主题相关情境均一致;多情境:主题相关情境均一致和主题相关多情境一致)均诱发了更小的 N400。最重要的是,在多情境条件下,主题相关情境均不一致目标词比无关词诱发了更小的 N400,但是在单情境条件下并未发现此结果。并且在多情境条件下,在早期的加工阶段新词与主题相关词之间的语义关系就已被觉察。以上结果说明,在不同的情境学习条件下新词的含义均能够被习得,并且能够与学习情境相关的主题相关词建立主题关系。在多情境学习条件下,新词能够与学习情境不一致的主题相关词建立主题关系。但是,在单情境学习条件下,新词不能够与学习情境不一致的主题相关词建立主题关系,表明在多情境条件下习得的新词能够与语义网络中的词语建立更丰富的主题关系联结。
实验二考察情境多样性对新词类别关系建立的影响。与实验一相似,被试通过阅读不同情境的语篇学习新词语的含义并完成词汇判断任务。习得的词语作为启动词,对应概念、类别相关词、特征相关词和无关词作为目标词。ERP 结果表明,在单情境与多情境学习条件下,对应概念和类别相关词均比无关词条件诱发了更小的 N400。并且,在多情境学习条件下,特征相关词比无关词诱发了更小的 N400,但是在单情境条件下却没有发现该效应。以上结果表明通过情境学习的新词语能够与已有的类别相关词建立语义联系, 但是在多情境条件下习得的新词具有更深的语义表征。
综合两个实验的结果,本研究发现,多情境条件下习得的新词语建立了更丰富的语义联结,并且形成了更深的语义表征,丰富的情境促进了新词快速地整合进入已有的语义网络并形成稳定的语义表征。

其他摘要

Discourse contextual learning is an important word learning approach in which the variability of context plays an important role in novel word learning. However, the question whether and how the variability of context influences the integration of novel word into the preexisting semantic network is still unclear. The present study used ERPs technique in semantic priming paradigm to explore these questions. We focused on two types of semantic relationships: taxonomic relation and thematic relation.  
In Experiment 1, we explored whether and how the variability of episodic context influences the acquisition of thematic relation of novel words. The novel words were learned from unitary or variable descriptive  episodic  discourses. In a lexical decision task, the novel words served as primes while the corresponding concepts (CC), words thematically related to the shared episodes across the unitary and variable episodic conditions (THS-1), words only thematically related to the episodes of the variable episodic condition (THS-2), thematically related words in a different episode (THD), or unrelated words (NR) served as targets. Event related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the CC and thematically related targets which were related to the learning episodes (THS-1  targets  for the unitary episodic condition and THS-1 and THS-2  targets  for the variable episodic condition,  respectively) elicited smaller N400s compared to the NR targets. Most importantly, the THD targets elicited a smaller N400 than the NR targets in the variable episodic condition but not in the unitary episodic condition. In addition, the thematic associations between the novel words and the thematically related words were also recognized in early processing stage in the variable episodic condition. These results suggested that the variability of episodic context facilitates the novel words form a rich thematic association in semantic network.  
In Experiment 2, we further explored whether the variability of episodic context would also influence the acquisition of taxonomic relation and the depth of semantic representation of novel words. Similar to Experiment 1, the novel words were learned from different episodic conditions and then the lexical decision task was conducted. The novel words served as primes while the corresponding concepts  (CC), taxonomic-related words (TR), feature-related words (FR), or unrelated words (NR) served as targets. Event related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the CC and TR  targets elicited smaller N400s compared to the NR targets. Most importantly, the FR targets elicited a smaller N400 than the NR targets in the variable episodic condition but not in the unitary episodic condition. These results suggested that the variability of episodic context also facilitates a deeper understanding of the novel word.  
Our findings suggested that the variable episodes result in a deeper understanding of a word’s meaning and a more stable and richer semantic representation in semantic network.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21416
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张美超. 语篇情境多样性对新词语义整合的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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