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幼儿的所有权认知及其与分享行为的关系
其他题名Preschoolers’ Ownership Cognition and Its Relationship with Sharing Behavior
李占星
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2017-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词所有者 所有物 先占线索 证言 道德特征
摘要

幼儿经常因为物品所有权发生冲突,这可能跟他们的所有权认知有关;所有权认知可能和幼儿的分享行为相关。理解所有权要求人们正确地识别所有者和所有物,并基于不同的线索判断所有权。以往研究主要集中在西方幼儿身上,关于所有权认知与分享行为之间的关系也不明确。本研究考察中国幼儿的所有权认知及其与分享行为的关系。
研究一分别利用等级评定法和顺序选择法考察了成人和3~5 岁幼儿判断四类主体(能力健全者、能力不健全者、动植物、人造物)是所有者的可能性。结果发现,4 岁及以上幼儿对四类主体是所有者的可能性判断与成人类似,遵循能力健全者>能力不健全者>动植物>人造物的顺序,3 岁幼儿存在将动植物判断为所有者的倾向。研究二通过图片评定的方式,考察了3~5 岁幼儿和成人对不同背景之中所有物被占有状态的理解。结果表明,3 岁幼儿能区分室内和户外动物的被占有状态,但不能确定户外植物的被占有状态,他们经常判断室内和户外的无生命自然物都是被占有的,而判断户外的人造物是不被人占有的,表现出和国外研究不同的判断模式,提示幼儿对所有物被占有状态的理解可能存在文化差异。
研究三通过考察不同线索条件下幼儿的所有权判断,分别考察动机因素、他人证言以及行为者人格特征对幼儿所有权判断的影响。实验3 考察幼儿在自身卷入和非卷入条件下基于先占线索的所有权判断,发现两种条件下幼儿均倾向于判断先占者是所有者,说明幼儿基于先占线索的所有权判断不受个人动机因素的影响。实验4 采用冲突线索范式,考察了3~5 岁幼儿和成人在他人证言与先占线索相冲突时的所有权判断。结果发现,3 岁和4 岁幼儿的所有权判断易受妈妈证言的影响,而5 岁和成人的所有权判断较少受到妈妈证言的影响,提示权威对年幼幼儿的所有权认知起着重要作用。实验5 考察了3~5 岁幼儿和成人在面对行为者道德特征线索时的所有权判断。结果发现,在只提供行为者道德特征线索时,4~5岁幼儿和成人会根据该线索来决定所有权,选择好孩子为所有者,而3 岁幼儿对好孩子和坏孩子的选择无显著差异。当先占线索和行为者道德特征线索冲突时,3 岁及以上幼儿和成人都会支持先占者,而非道德特征线索所指向的亲社会行为者,说明从3 岁起,先占线索在决定所有权判断时的作用就已大于行为者道德特征线索。
研究四以3 岁和5 岁幼儿为对象,考察了幼儿的所有权认知、所有权感知与分享行为之间的关系。将幼儿的所有权认知划分为所有权区分、基于不同线索的所有权推理以及对所有权转移的理解三种不同的成分,通过设置猜谜游戏赢得奖励启动幼儿的所有权感知,通过独裁者游戏考察幼儿的分享行为。结果发现,所有权感知在5 岁幼儿的所有权区分能力和分享数量之间起着调节作用。所有权区分能力越高的幼儿,在启动所有权感知时越乐于分享,提示幼儿的所有权认知可能通过所有权感知方面的差异对分享行为发生作用。
本研究揭示,我国幼儿的所有权认知发展具有自身的特点,提示跨文化研究的必要性。研究结果表明,幼儿基于先占线索的所有权判断具有相对稳定性,不受被试自身动机和行为者道德特征因素的影响。同时发现,权威证言会影响年幼幼儿的所有权判断,说明后天经验会影响幼儿所有权认知的发展。幼儿的所有权认知可通过所有权感知的差异影响幼儿的分享行为,提示可以通过干预幼儿的所有权认知和所有权感知,塑造他们的分享行为。

其他摘要

Young children often dispute for objects' ownership. This may have relationship with their ownership cognition. Further,children’s ownership cognition may affect their sharing behavior. A full understanding of ownership demands people to identify who is the owner, what can be owned, and reason ownership basing on different cues correctly. Previous developmental studies mainly focused on western samples, and the relationship between children’s ownership cognition and sharing behavior was not clarified. Based on prior research, we investigated Chinese preschoolers' development of ownership cognition and its relationship with sharing behavior in the study.
In Study 1, we used the scale rating method and order ranking method to investigate adults and 3~5-year olds' understanding of who can be the owner. The results revealed that preschoolers aged above 4 years old ranked competence-abled people as the most possible owner, followed by competence-disabled people, and followed by animals and plants. The most impossible owner ranked by them was the artifacts. Three -year olds had a tendency to rate animals and plants as owners. In Study 2, we adopted a method of picture evaluation, and investigated 3~5 year olds' intuitive judgment of what has been possessed. The result revealed that from 3 years
old, preschoolers could identify the ownership status of animals according to their local information (i.e., indoors or ourdoors), but children below 4 years old could not identify the ownership status of plants outdoors. Besides, 3 year olds often judged lifeless natural objects to be owned wherever they were indoors or outdoors, and had difficulty in judging ownership status of artifacts outdoors. Such pattern of Chinese children's judgment was different from their counterparts in western countries, which suggests the necessity of the cross-cultural study.difficulty in judging ownership status of artifacts outdoors. Such pattern of Chinese children's judgment was different from their counterparts in western countries, which suggests the necessity of the cross-cultural study.
Study 3 investigated young children's ownership judgment basing on different cues, by which we would like to know the role of subjects' motivation, others' testimony and actors' personality in children's attribution of ownership. In Experiment 3, we explored 3- and 5-year old children's ownership judgment basing on first possession when they were involved or not involved in the real context. We found that two age groups generally tended to judge the first possessor as the owner in both conditions. This demonstrates that from 3 years old, children's ownership judgments basing on first possession are not influenced by their individual motivation.
Experiment 4 adopted the conflicting cues paradigm, investigating 3~5 year olds' and adults' ownership reasoning basing on other people's testimony. The results revealed that 3- and 4- year olds' ownership judgments were easily influenced by mother's testimony, but 5-year olds' and adults' judgments were rarely influenced by authority's testimony. This indicates the authority figures play an important role in children's ownership cognition. Experiment 5 investigated 3~5 year olds' and adults' ownership judgment basing on actor's moral characteristics. The results found that when there was only cue about actor's moral characteristics, 4~5 year olds and adults tended to choose the the owner according to such cue and regarded the prosocial individual as the owner, but 3 years olds had no such preference. When the cue of actor's moral characteristics conflicted with the cue of first possession, children aged above 3 years
old and adults all tended to support the first possessor as owner, but not the one whom the moral characteristic cue directed to. The result demonstrates at least from 3 years old, children gave more weight to the cue of first possession than the cue of moral characteristics in deciding ownership.
In Study 4, we selected 3- and 5- year old children as subjects, and investigated the relationship among children's ownership cognition of different level (i.e.,ownership differentiation, ownership reasoning based on different cues, and understanding of ownership transfers), ownership perception and their sharing behavior. Children's ownership cognition was tested by story method, and ownership perception was initiated by a guessing game. The dictator game was used to examine children's sharing behavior. We found only in 5 years old group, ownership perception moderated the relationship between ownership differentiation and their sharing amount. For those children who performed better in ownership differentiation, when ownership perception was initiated, they were more likely to share. This indicates children’s ownership cognition may affect thier sharing behavior via extent of ownership perception.
In summary, this study demonstrates that Chinese children's ownership understanding are to some extent different from those in western countries and has specific features, suggesting the necessity of cross-cultural research. The results showed children's ownership reasoning basing on first possession is relatively steady and insusceptible of subject's motivation and actor's moral dispositional characteristics, but it can be affected by authority's testimony, which implicates the postnatal experiences may mold children's ownership understanding. Ownership cognition may influence preschoolers' sharing behavior through ownership perception, which implicates to us that we may cultivate children's sharing behavior by intervening their ownership cognition and ownership perception.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21441
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李占星. 幼儿的所有权认知及其与分享行为的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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