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渴求对吸烟者冲动决策的影响
其他题名The Influence of Cigarette Craving on Impulsive Decision Making in Smokers
田莫千
学位类型博士
导师刘勋
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知神经科学
关键词冲动性 自我控制渴求冲动性 自我控制渴求吸烟 成瘾
摘要

目的:冲动性包含冲动决策、冲动人格、冲动动作,其中冲动决策是最具代表性的维度,延迟折扣任务是最常用的测量冲动决策的实验室任务。高延迟折扣率是物质成瘾者的行为学标记:物质成瘾者比非物质成瘾者有更高的延迟折扣率,具有更大的冲动决策倾向。渴求是成瘾者寻求获取成瘾物的复杂情绪状态,已有研究发现戒断引发的渴求可以临时增加成瘾者的冲动决策,但尚未有研究系统考察线索引发的渴求对成瘾者冲动决策的影响。本论文通过三项研究来考察吸烟者戒断、线索引发的渴求对其冲动决策行为的影响及相应神经机制。
方法:研究一使用行为学方法,通过预实验获取中国吸烟被试对国际吸烟图片系统的渴求度、唤醒度、愉悦度得分,以用于后续实验。正式实验设置满足状态观看中性线索、戒断状态观看中性线索、戒断状态观看吸烟线索,这三种渴求度逐渐增加的实验阶段。令被试在每个阶段进行多个延迟折扣任务和延迟满足任务,以系统考察渴求对于冲动决策的影响。研究二使用事件相关电位的手段,让被试在吸烟线索或者中性线索两种条件下,分别进行伪赌博任务,包含四种结果:今天获得20元,今天损失20元,两个月后获得20元,两个月后损失20元。考察线索引发的渴求对于这四种结果评估的影响。研究三使用行为学方法,通过吸烟线索评定任务和真实香烟评价任务激发吸烟者的渴求,再通过警示标签观看任务降低吸烟者的渴求,以考察三类警示标签的效果和人格变量与效果的相关。
结果:研究一发现,在线索损失延迟折扣任务中,吸烟线索引发的渴求增加了吸烟者对未来损失的延迟折扣程度,在线索延迟满足任务中,戒断引发的渴求降低了吸烟者的延迟满足能力。研究二发现,在结果评估阶段诱发的晚期正电位上,线索引发的渴求与结果的延迟时间出现了交互作用,即在中性线索条件,未来结果比今天结果诱发了更大的晚期正电位,而在吸烟线索条件,延迟时间的主效应消失。研究三发现,警示标签的作用与个体冲动性的“无计划性”维度呈负相关,而与个体的惩罚敏感性呈正相关。图文警示标签和具体文字标签的效果均优于当前我国使用的概括性文字标签。
结论:冲动性和损失敏感度对警示标签的渴求缓解分别起着抑制和促进作用;渴求临时增加了吸烟者的冲动决策;渴求对吸烟者冲动决策的影响是通过对于自我控制的干扰以及对于未来时间信息加工的干扰而实现的。

其他摘要

Objective: Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct which contains impulsive decision making, impulsive personality and motor impulsivity. Impulsive decision making is the typical definition of impulsivity and Delay Discounting Task (DDT) is the most commonly used task measuring impulsive decision making. The heightened delay discounting (DD) rate is the behavioral marker of addictive behaviors. People with substance use disorders usually have larger DD rates than normal controls and are more prone to make impulsive decisions. Craving is a drug-acquisitive emotional state motivating drug use. Research have shown that withdrawal-elicited craving can temporally increase substance users’ inclination to make impulsive choices. But no research has systematically explore the influence of withdrawal and cue-elicited craivng on impulsive decision making and its neural underpinnings.
Methods:In study 1, we got the ratings on dimensions of craving, arousal and valence of 100 pictorial smoking cues from International Smoking Imagery System in a group of Chinese smokers in a pilot experiment. We then manipulated the graded craving intensities by setting three sessions: satiated and neutral cue, abstinent and neural cue, abstinent and smoking cue. Smokers performed multiple DDTs and a smoking delay of gratification task in each session. Thus we could systematically check the influence of craving on several aspects of impulsive decision making. In study 2, satiated smokers were faced with either smoking pictorial cues or neutral pictorial cues in each of the two sessions. In each session, subjects participated in a fake gambling task leading to four possible outcomes: winning ¥20 today, losing ¥20 today, winning ¥20 after 2 months, losing ¥20 after 2 months. Using event-related potentials, we could explore the neural mechanisms of craving effects on the outcome evaluation. In study 3, we evoked smokers’ craving by a cue-rating task and a vivo manipulation task. And then we relieved smokers’ craving by a warning label-viewing task. We compared the effects of three types of warning labels on regulating craving and explored the correlations between these effects and personality traits.
Resutls: In study 1, smoking cues increased the DD rates for future losses and withdrawal-elicited craving weakened smokers’ ability to delay gratification. In study 2, we found the interaction of cue-elicited craving and the time of the outcomes on late positive potentials (LPP). In the neutral cue session, future outcomes evoked larger LPP amplitudes than today outcomes. But in the smoking cue session, this effect of delayed time disappeared. The results of study 3 showed that the effect of warning labels was positively correlated with ‘susceptibility to punishment’ and was negatively correlated with ‘non-planning’ in BIS-11. The warning labels of picture texts and specific texts had larger effects than those of general texts.
Conclusions: Craving temporally increases the prone to make impulsive decisions. The mechanism of craving effect on impulsive decision making may lie in its disruptions on self-control and the processing of now and future. Impulsivity and ‘susceptibility to punishment’ are negatively and positively correlated with the warning label effect in smokers, respectively.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21495
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
田莫千. 渴求对吸烟者冲动决策的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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