PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
汉语的语音意识及其与语言能力的关系
其他题名The Relationship Between Phonological Awareness and Linguistic Ability in Chinese Abstract
姜涛
学位类型博士
导师彭聊龄
1998-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业普通心理学
关键词语音意识 首音一韵脚 音位 形声字 词语短时记忆
摘要

    在本研究中,综合采用了实验法、测验法、调查法等方法,系统探讨了汉语的语音意识的发展及其与语言能力发展的关系。从被试的角度来说,研究分为两部分,一部分是探讨儿童(小学生)的情况,另一部分是探讨成年人(大学生)的情况,对儿童被试来说,我们选取3, 4, 5年级的学生各20名,根据教师的评定把被试分别分为好的读者和差的读者。对于成人被试来说,我们选取大学生38名作为被试。
    从实验的设计方面来说,实验任务分为四部分(成人为三部分),第一部分是语音意识的测查,对儿童被试来说,采用问卷测验法,测查被试的音节意识、首音韵脚意识和音位意识的特点和水平;对成人被试来说,采用问卷法测查他们的音位意识,采用实验室实验的方法测查他们的首音韵脚意识。第二部分考察词语短时记忆及其与语音意识的关系,词语短时记忆测验包括押韵字串和非押韵字串,押韵字串包括声调相同的字串和声调不同的字串。第三部分考察汉语字词命名、汉语拼音的拼读及其与语音意识的关系,汉语字词命名包括叠韵词命名、双声词命名、形声字命名,拼音拼读测验分别控制音节的辅音、元音和声调的类型。第四部分是汉字阅读测验(只针对儿童),从小学生汉语字典上按难易程度分等级抽取100个汉字,让儿童阅读。对儿童被试来说,我们采取完全被试内设计,对成人被试,采取不完全被试内设计。
  使用SPSS统计软件对实验结果进行统计分析得到以下主要结果:
1、汉语的语音意识的发展表现为音节意识和首音韵脚意识发展较早,音位意识发展较晚。
2、词语的短时记忆表现出语音相似性干扰的效应。不管是儿童还是成人,对非  押韵字串的短时记忆成绩要好于对押韵字串的短时记忆成绩,声调不同的字    串的记忆成绩要好于声调相同的字串的记忆成绩。
3、语音的冗余信息的汉语双字词和形声字命名中起到重要的作用,叠韵词和双声词在命名的反应时和正确率上要优于非叠韵词和非双声词的命名成绩;读音规则和一致的形声字的命名成绩要比例外字的命名成绩好。
4、音节类型和声调对汉语拼音的拼读产生显著影响,塞辅音优于擦辅音和塞擦音;开口音优于启齿音和合口音;第一声调的音节优于其它声调的音节。
5、好差读者在语音意识和言语能力的诸多方面差异显著,这种差异尤其表现在需要精细加工的言语作业当中,而且,较差读者在语音意识和言语能力上落后于较好读者主要很可能是由于发展迟滞所造成的。
6、语音意识与言语能力的关系是相互的,而且,这种相关关系只存在于儿童时期,而不存在于成人时期。

其他摘要

A great deal of research has been done concerning the relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in the alphabetic writing systems. Less is understood about the relationship between phonological awareness and linguistic ability in Chinese. In this research, 20 children from each of 3,4,5 grades and 38 undergraduate students served as subjects, according to the teachers' recommendation, each group of children subjects divided into good and poor readers. Several experiments  were  designed  to  research  the  relationship  between phonological awareness and some linguistic abilities in Chinese.
Four parts were included in this research.(1)Phonological awareness test, tests of syllable  awareness, onset-rime awareness, and phonemic awareness for children, tests of onset-rime awareness and phonemic awareness for adults.(2)The relationship between phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory.  The materials of verbal short-term memory include rhyme character strings and non-rhyme character strings. The rhyme character strings include tonal similar strings and tonal different strings.(3)The relationship between phonological awareness, Chinese character naming, and Pinyin spelling. The naming tasks include 2-character word naming and phonograms naming. The Affricative),vowel(Open mouth, Close mouth, Even  teeth),  And tone(tone 1,tone2,tone3,tone4). (4)The relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese character reading(children only),100 Chinese characters in the test were selected from a Chinese character dictionary of primary school.
The results of this research indicated that:
1 .Chinese of phonological awareness of children developed with the increasing of grade, the developmental trend of Chinese phonological awareness was about the same as that of English speaking children,syllable awareness developed earlier than onset-rime awareness and phonemic awareness.
2. Both children and adults had made significantly more errors on rhyme character strings than on non一 rhyme character strings, and they also had made more errors on tone-same strings than on tone-different strings, the phonetic confusability of the  rhyme character strings impaired the verbal memory performance of subjects.
3 .Phonetic redundancy made a significant role in the two-character naming and phonograms naming. Alliteration word and rhyme word were named more quickly and accurately than non-alliteration word and non-rhyme word; Regular and consistent phonograms were named more quickly and accurately than exception phonograms.
4. Stop consonant syllables were named more quickly and accurately than fricative consonant syllables and affricative consonant syllables; Open mouth vowel syllables were named quickly and accurately more than close mouth vowel syllables and even teeth vowel syllables; Tone 1 syllables were syllables. syllables were named quickly and accurately more than other tone syllables.
5. The poor readers fall behind good readers in their phonological awareness, verbal short-term memory, and some other linguistic abilities. The extent of difference between good and poor readers was greater in the difficult task than in the easy task. The differences between good and poor readers are analogous to those between older and younger children, and performance of the older poor readers tends to resemble that of younger good readers, good and poor readers tend to differ in the rate at which they develop phonological awareness and linguistic abilities.
6. Phonological awareness were significantly correlated to verbal short-term memory, naming, Pinyin spelling, and Chinese character reading.The relationship between phonological awareness and linguistic abilities is reciprocal, but this relationship only exist in childhood rather than in
adulthood.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21605
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位北京师范大学研究生院
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
姜涛. 汉语的语音意识及其与语言能力的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,1998.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
汉语的语音意识及其与语言能力的关系.pd(8413KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SA请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[姜涛]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[姜涛]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[姜涛]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。