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异同比较中的序列效应
其他题名Sequential effects in Same-different Comparison
禤宇明
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2002-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词异同比较 序列效应 同反应启动效应 维度转移代价效应 重复效应
摘要

    异同比较作为一种常用的实验室任务,长期以来研究者们对其机制进行了大量的研究,并提出了各种模型用以解释实验研究发现的现象(例如,快同效应)。不同的模型虽然对同判断的机制有很多不一致的解释,但基本上都认为对多维刺激的异判断是一利,基于维度分析的比较过程。
    序列效应指的是前一尝试的刺激(或反应)对当前尝试的影响。相比之下,对异同比较中的序列效应的系统研究还很少。己有的少量相关研究发现了同反应启动效应,即同反应后的反应快于异反应后的反应,但研究者没有清楚地阐述其机制,也没有对此进行深入研究。、对其他任务的序列效应的研究表明,反应重复一般对反应有促进作用。但异同比较任务中的同反应启动效应与此规律不符,因为同反应后的同反应虽然快于异反应后的异反应,但是同反应后的异反应也快于异反应后的异反应。这个矛盾表明了有必要深入研究同反应启动效应,说明异反应后的异反应这种最慢的异反应现象,进一步揭示异同比较的心理加工过程和机制。
    本研究从同反应启动效应出发,对异向比较中的序列效应进行了系统的研究。本研究发现,在排除刺激重复影响后,不管是刺激对先后呈现还是同时呈现,在物理相同标准下对单维刺激的异同比较中,研究一的4个实验中有3个实验观测到了同反应启动效应,而另外一个出现了天花板效应;研究二考察了名义相同标准下的异同比较,其中的1个实验观测到了同反应启动效应,另一个实验的结果仅部分表现出同反应启动效应;研究二还发现,物理相同刺激对的比较很容易受前一尝试的影响,而物理不同刺激对的比较不容易受前一尝试的影响;研究三和研究四的结果表明,在多维刺激的异同比较中,无论以简单的几何图形还是以较复杂的人脸示意图为束U激材料,实验结果都表现出了同反应启动效应,针对异反应后的异反应的分析还发现了维度转移代价效应,即差异维度前后一致的反应显著快于前后不一致的反应。
    本研究结果表明,(1)物理相同标准的异同比较中,同反应启动效应是一个比较强的效应;而名义相同标准的异同比较中同反应启动效应是否成立还有待进一步研究。(2)在物理相同标准下对多维刺激的异同比较中还存在维度转移代价效应。本文认为,同反应启动效应反映了异、同判断基于不同的比较机制,同反应后的反应之所以较快是因为两次比较之间不需要两个比较机制的转换,而异反应后的反应之所以较慢是因为需要两个比较机制的转换。而维度转移代价效应则反映了异判断中选择性注意的作用,差异维度的转换一也就是注意维度的转换,需要一定的代价。

其他摘要

     Same-different comparison is a very common experimental task. A great deal of researches have been done to study the mechanism of same-different comparison and many models have been developed to explain the phenomena found in the lab research. In single-process models a common comparison path ,underlies the judgments of sameness and judgments ofdifference, while in dual-process models separate comparison paths lead to the two judgments. But few works have been done to investigate the sequential ef}'ects in same-dif}'erent comparison. Sequential effects are present_ in data when reaction times to a stimulus depend on the identity of (and, possibly, the response to) the preceding'stimulus. Several studies have revealed that, responses to both same and different  trials were faster following  same trials than following  different trials. "Same"-priming effect was not compatible with response repetition effects observed in other studies on sequential effects. Response repetition effect predicts that different trials following different trials should be faster than different trials following same trials.
     The present study was divided into four parts. Study I and study II aimed to examine the robustness of "same"-priming effect, and study III and study IV focused on the slowest trials, i.e. different trials preceded by different trials, as well as "same"-priming effect。
      In study I, stimulus repetition was avoided to purify "same"-priming effect if observed. In four experiments, three of them exhibited "same"-priming effect in same-different comparison of integral-dimension stimuli pairs on physical identity criterion. In study II, stimulus repetition was also avoided but "same"-priming effects were only observed in one of the two experiments on nominal identity criterion, which required subjects made judgments according to one relevant dimension while ignoring another dimension. The results of study II also indicated that physical "same" judgments were fast but also prone to be interfered. In study III and study IV, "same"-priming effect was present in all of the six experiments on physical identity criterion, regardless of the types and the complexity of the multidimensional stimuli used. A new sequential effect, dimension-switching cost effect, was found in five experiments when analyzing the effects of different trials on subsequent different trials. Dimensional switch cost effect revealed that responses on different trials were faster if the mismatched dimension were consistent with the preceding trial.
     The results of the present study indicated that "same'’一priming effect was robust in same-different comparison on physical identity criterion but it was probably not so stable on nominal identity criterion. Dimensional swith cost effect was also a strong effect in same-different  comparison  of  multidimensional  stimuli.  The  author  claimed  that "same'’一prllnlllg effect reflected the different mechanisms of judgments of sameness and judgments of difference and it might be explained by a seduential dual-process model of same-different comparison. Dimensional swith cost effect revealed a dynamic allocation mechanis of selective attention in "different" judgments. The shifting of mismatched dimension indicated the shifting of attended dimension and therefore swith cost was exhibited.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21679
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
禤宇明. 异同比较中的序列效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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