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注意与创造性之间的关系 及其在创造性问题解决中的作用
其他题名CREATIVITY AND ATTENTION
刘正奎
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2005-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理发展与教育
摘要

    个体创造性差异的实质是什么?这是创造性研究领域的一个基本问题。注意作为一种基本的心理功能,影响着个体在创造性活动中产生远距离联系的可能性,也影响着对已形成的各种联系做出新颖或独特的选择。因此,个体注意模式.的不同可能是个体创造性差异一个重要来源。本研究采用了实验法与测量学相结合的方法,并使用眼动技术,重点探讨了创造性与注意之间的关系,注意在创造性问题解决过程的特点及作用机制。本研究发现:
    首先,个体的创造性越高,他们在发散注意和集中注意中作业成绩也越好。回归分析进一步表明,发散性注意和集中注意均是创造性变异的重要来源。
    其次,智力水平对创造性与注意之间的相关没有明显的影响。而人格测验中的开放性与创造性之间虽然存在着明显的相关,但这种相关主要是它们共享了共同基础-一发散性注意。
    第三,个体在创造性(顿悟)问题解决的初始阶段和中间阶段,平均注视时间均比常规问题长,而在问题最后阶段,两者的平均注视时间没有显著的差异。即创造性问题解决在初始阶段比常规性问题需要更多的集中注意的参与。从个体在解决问题过程中注意资源的分配来看,个体在创造性问题解决的初始阶段注意资源分配的模式与常规问题中的分配模式相类似。而创造性问题的最后阶段则表现出与常规问题不同的注意资源分配模式。
第四,在创造性问题解决过程中,成功解决组相比未能解决组在注意模式是不同的。成功解决组在创造性问题的初始、中间和最后阶段上,平均注视时间表现出先上升后下降的倒“V”型走势。而未能解决组则是先上升后停留在一个相对稳定的平台上。对两组在问题解决的最后阶段分析发现,发散性注意可能是区分成功解决组和未能成功解决的一个重要特征
    第五,在创造性问题解决过程中,成功解决组的瞳孔直径要明显地小于未能解决组。即成功解决组具有更多的与低的皮层激活水平相联系的发散性注意。而常规问题和顿悟问题两种任务上的瞳孔直径大小差异不显著。

其他摘要

    A large body of research on creativity concerns a key question:What kinds of individual differences can be distinguished in creativity activities? As an elemental mental processing, attention can increases the likelihood that remote associates will be accessed and play an important role in mechanisms that allow for focused tests of solution appropriateness.
Thus, individual differences in creativity activities may root in the differentiation in attention manners of individuals. By experimental manipulation and psychometric assessment and using eye tracking techniques, the present study mainly studied the potential relations batween creativity and attention, the role and self-consistent characteristics of attention in solving creative problems. The results indicated that:
   1. Participants with higher scores on the creative thinking scale also did better
performance on the defocused attention and focused regression analysis, it showed that the effects of defocused attention and focused attention on creativity were equal.
    2. The intelligence of individuals could not mediate the relations between performance on a dichotic listening task and creativity. The openness in five factor personality tests was positively related to creativity,but this association might showed a fact that defocused attention played an important role in both relationship between openness and creativity.
  3. In solving general problems and insight problems, participants' fixation patterns were different. In the initial and middle stages of problem solving, the fixations times on insight problems were longer than the ones on general questions;in the final stage,  the fixation times on both types of problems were not significantly different. That is to say, solving insight problems require deploying more focused attention than solving general problems. The patterns of allocating attention in general and insight problem solving groups were similar in the initial stage, but not in the final stage.
  4. In insight problem solving, successful and failed groups showed different fixation patterns.  When the average fixation times in the successful group were distributed across the initial, middle and final stages, an inversed "V" shape could be plotted. In other words, the average fixation times became larger from the initial stage to the middle stage and became smaller again from the middle stage to the final stage. While in the failed group,  the average fixation times became larger first from the initial stage to the middle stage and leveled off from the middle stage to the final stage. The fixation pattern data in the final stage suggested that  defocused  attention  might  be  a  key  predictor  to  distinguish successful and failed groups in insight problem solving.
    5.  In  solving  insight  problems,  the  average  pupil  diameter  in Solving successful group is smaller than the average one in failed group. It suggested  that  successful  group  deployed  more  defocused  attention  group is resources which could be easily activated.  There was no significant deference in the average pupil diameter when participants solved general questions and insight problems.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21781
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘正奎. 注意与创造性之间的关系 及其在创造性问题解决中的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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