PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
幼儿对情绪的朴素认知发展
其他题名Development of Preschoolers' Naive Cognition of Emotion
刘国雄
学位类型博士
导师方富熹
2005-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词情绪认知 心理理论 行为线索 情感观点采择
摘要

    八、九十年代以来的情绪发展研究成果丰硕、理论纷呈,已成为当前发展研究的一个重要领域。幼儿对情绪的朴素认知发展,或其朴素情绪理论的发展是其心理理论发展的一个重要部分,是当前具有国际前沿性的一项研究课题。本研究采用个别测查的手段给3, 4, S岁幼儿(每组各30名)讲述一系列日常生活图片故事,通过四个研究考察了幼儿对情绪的朴素认知发展。主要结果如下:
    (I)研究一考察了幼儿对不同情境中具有不同行为表现的主人公的情绪认知。90%以上的幼儿都能正确指出情境中具有积极行为的主人公觉得高兴;他们对消极情绪的认知要差一些,并在3-4岁之间获得了较为显著的发展进而达到成熟水平,这一发展依赖于情境与情绪的关联程度;60%左右的3岁幼儿能认识到同样情境中具有不同行为表现的个体具有不同的情绪体验,到4, 5岁时,幼儿的这一情感观点采择能力获得较大发展并达到较成熟水平;他们采用心理状态归因、行为线索归因以及情境归因的倾向性与情绪的性质以及具体的情境有关。
    (II)研究二从两种不同性质的需要(心理和生理需要)出发,考察了幼儿对愿望是否满足引发的情绪认知,结果表明:90%以上的幼儿都能理解愿望满足将引起积极的情绪反应;他们对愿望未满足时引发的消极情绪认知要显著差一些,表现出明显的年龄发展趋势。分别有66.7%, 90%, 96.7%的3, 4, 5岁能正确指出主人公在心理需要没有满足时将体验到消极情绪,而在生理需要未满足时的正确百分比则显著降低到40%, 66.7%, 86.7%,这一结果与幼儿在心理需要与生理需要相冲突的情况下优先考虑心理需要的倾向性一起,并称为幼儿情绪认知中的“心理需要优先效应”。
     (III)研究三结合个体愿望最终是否得到满足,考察了幼儿对基于信念的情绪理解。结果表明:1) 3, 4, 5岁幼儿对信念证伪前的不高兴情绪认知表现出显著的年龄发展,通过率分别为23.3%, 53.3%, 76.7%;但他们对证伪前的高兴情绪认知却显得相对较好、通过率高达53.3%, 70%, 80%,表现出明显的积极情绪偏差效应。2)在信念证伪之后,几乎所有幼儿都能理解愿望的最终满足将引起积极的情绪反应,对愿望不能得到满足时的消极情绪认知要显著差一些,主要体现在3岁组,其通过率下降到63.3%,这与研究2的结果是一致的。3)对信念证伪后引发的惊奇情绪的理解也受到愿望是否满足的影响,在愿望未满足时几乎所有幼儿都预期主人公感到奇怪,而在愿望满足时,其惊奇判断显著降低到77.8%,且这一差异主要体现在3, 4岁组。幼儿倾向于对其惊奇情绪给出情境定向的归因,认为眼前(与本来情况不相符)的结果让主人公感到.惊奇。4)分别有23.3%、一半以上、3/4以上的3, 4, 5岁组幼儿能理解基于信念的情绪;他们使用情境策略、情境—愿望策略、信念—愿望策略等来推测情绪的能力是逐步发展的。3岁组幼儿情绪理解水平最低,他们对情绪的推测3种策略兼而有之,但情境—愿望策略略占优势;4岁组处于中间水平,他们对情绪的理解兼有信念—愿望策略和情境—愿望策略,但倾向于以前者为主;5岁组幼儿基本掌握了信念—愿望策略。幼儿的情绪归因与其情绪判断时的策略基本一致;认知发展与其错误信念理解基本一致,
对基于信念的情绪幼儿具有朴素情绪理论框架的设想,并不存在显著的滞后效应。这些结果支持同时也验证了朴素情绪理论发展模式。
    (IV)研究四采用精简的错误信念任务,考察了幼儿对信念证伪之后引发的惊奇情绪的理解。结果表明:绝大多数幼儿都能正确指出自身或是故事主人公信念证伪之后产生的惊奇情绪,其归因均以情境定向为主,只有极少数幼儿提到了相应的信念状态。3,4, 5幼儿对他人、以及自身错误信念的认知基本是一致的,且显著差于对惊奇情绪的理解,通过率分别为一半左右、76.7%,93.3%,这一结果显著好于他们在经典的错误信念任务上的成绩,揭示出3岁幼儿就具有的对错误信念的认知潜力。幼儿对奇怪情绪产生原因的后向推测能力在3-5岁之间获得了显著的发展,这一能力显著低于前向预测能力,甚至较其对错误信念的认知还要差。这一差异反映出心理表征技能对幼儿情绪理解的影响。
    综上,研究一揭示出儿童较早就出现的对日常情境的非自我中心的情感观点采择能力及其采用心理状态归因的倾向性,研究二从愿望产生的根源上揭示出幼儿对基于愿望的情绪理解的发展,研究三结合愿望最终是否得到满足深入地揭示出幼儿对基于信念的情绪认知发展及其朴素情绪理论的发展模式,研究四澄清了惊奇情绪与信念的关系以及幼儿对惊奇情绪的朴素理解,这些结果扩展了当前人们对幼儿理解外部情境、内在的愿望、信念状态与情绪的关系的认识,对基于信念的情绪理解总是晚于基于愿望的情绪理解的常规看法提出了挑战,改进、简化了经典的情感观点采择任务、错误信念任务,并提出、检验了幼儿的朴素情绪理论发展模式,揭示出幼儿从现实主义者向心理主义者过渡的情绪认知发展趋势及其个体内差异,为童年早期的情绪发展提供了多维的量化指标,对日常生活中的亲子互动和情绪社会化的育儿实践具有重要意义。

其他摘要

   Researches and theories on emotional development have flourished since the 1980s and become one of the most important fields in developmental studies.Preschoolers' naive cognitive development of emotion, or their theory of emotion development is an important part of their theory of mind development, and one of the internationally frontal projects. Ninety 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds' naive cognition of emotion was examined by telling them individually series of pictorial stories closely related to their everyday life. Results showed that:
   (I) Study 1 examined preschoolers' emotion cognition toward protagonists with different behavior in different situations. Above 90% of them could understand that protagonists with positive behavior would feel happy, while their understanding of negative emotions was relatively poorer and showed obvious developmental trends during 3-4-year-old and then riched the full understanding, which was some related to the typicality of the situation. About 60% of the 3-year-olds could understand that individuals with different behaviors under the same situations would feel differently;Such affective perspective taking ability reached the highest level at 4 and S-year-olds.Tendency to use mental state, behavioral clues, or situational clues justify their emotioan judgment changed with polarity of emotion arid situations.   
    (II) Study 2 took into account two kinds of needs, that is, physiological needs and psychological needs,  and  examined preschoolers' understanding of  desire-based emotions. Above 90% of them could understand that the satisfaction of desire would lead to positive emotion, while their understanding of negative emotions when desires were not satisfied was relatively poorer and showed obvious developmental trends.66.7%、90%、96.7%  of 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds respectively could understand protagonist's negative emotion when their psychological need was not satisfied, while the ratios reduced significantly to 40%、66.7 %、86.7% when it came to their physiological need. This result was called the "superiority of psychological need" in preschoolers'  emotion  cognition  combined  with  their preference  to  think  about protagonist's psychological need first when it's conflicted with their physiological one.
    (III) Study 3 examined preschoolers' understanding of belief-based emotions taking into account whether the desire was satisfied or not. 1) There's significant age effect in 3一,4- and S-year-olds' cognition of the unhappy emotion before the protagonist's belief was proved to be false, with the passing ratios of 23.3%, 53.3%、76.7% respectively. However, their cognition of the corresponding happy emotion was comparatively better, with the passing ratios as high as 53.3%、70%, 800}0, which is an obvious strong bias of positive emotion judgment. 2) After the protagonist's belief was proved false, nearly all the preschoolers could understand the satisfaction of desire in the end would lead to positive emotion, while their understanding of negative emotion when the desire was not satisfied was relatively poor, mainly for the 3-year-olds. The 3-year-olds' passing ratio was reduced to 63.3%, which was in consistency with the result in study 2. 3) Preschoolers' understanding of surprise after the protagonist's belief was proved false was also associated to the satisfaction of desire. Nearly all of them predicted the protagonist to be surprised when his desire was not satisfied, while the surprise judgment reduced significantly to 77.8% when the protagonist's desire was satisfied, which was embodied mainly in 3- and 4-year-olds. Their justification was mainly situation-oriented, that is, they thought the fact in current situation (of course not consistent with the original situation) surprised the protagonist. 4)  23.3%, half or so, above one quarter of 3一,4- and 5-year-olds respectively could understand the belief-based emotion, and their ability to use situation strategy, situation一desire strategy, and belief一desire strategy to infer emotion developed gradually. 3-year-olds' emotion cognition was at the low level, who inferred others' emotion with all the 3 strategies averagely; 4-year-olds belonged to the middle level and used situation一desire strategy, and belief一desire strategy to infer emotion, but tended to use the former more; 5一year-olds were at the high level and mostly used belief一desire strategy to infer emotion. Preschoolers' emotion justifications were basically consistent with their emotion judgment; their understanding of belief-based emotion was basically congruent with their understanding of false belief and showed none effect of "lagging behind". These results supported the presumption that preschoolers has developed a naive theoretical framework of emotion and verified the pattern of the development of their naive theory of emotion.
    (IV)  Study  4  examined  preschoolers' understanding of surprise when  the protagonist',s belief was proved false with the false belief task simplified by us. Most preschoolers could understand the protagonist or themselves would feel surprise when the original belief was proved false and justified with outcome oriented reasons. Only a few of them referred to the corresponding belief state. 3-, 4- and S-year-olds understanding of their own false belief was basically consistent with the understanding of others', which was significant worse than their understanding of the emotion of surprise with the passing ration of half or so, 76.7%, and 93.3%. This performance was significantly better than their performance on the classical false belief task and disclosed 3一year-olds' cognitive potential toward false belief. Preschoolers' backward judgment about the reason of surprise developed significantly during 3-Syear-olds; this ability was significantly worse than their forward predication of emotion, and even worse than their performance on false belief task. This difference showed the role of mental representation in preschoolers' emotion understanding.
    In  conclusion, study  1  disclosed  preschoolers' none-egocentric  affective perspective taking ability toward daily situations and their tendency to justify their emotion judgment with mental states, study 2 disclosed preschoolers' development of their understanding of desire-based emotion from the origins of desire, study 3 furtherly  disclosed preschoolers' development of understanding  of belief-based emotion and the pattern of their naive theory of emotion development taking into account of the final state whether the desire was satisfied or not, study 4 clarified the relation between surprise and belief and preschoolers' naive understanding of surprise.
    All these results expanded the current knowledge of preschoolers' understanding of the relation between emotion and the objective situation, desire, and belief, chanllenged the stereotyped perspective that preschoolers should always understand belief-based emotion later than desire-base emotion, improved and reduced the classical affective perspective taking task, false belief task, proposed and verified the developmental pattern of preschoolers' naive theory of emotion, disclosed preschoolers' cognitive developmental trends from a realist to a mentalist and the intra-individual difference of their development. These works provids multi-dimensional quantitative index for emotional development in early childhood, and had great implications for the nurturing practice of parent-child interaction and the emotion socialization in everyday life.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21799
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘国雄. 幼儿对情绪的朴素认知发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
刘国雄-博士学位论文.pdf(9442KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SA请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[刘国雄]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[刘国雄]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[刘国雄]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。