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小学儿童时钟时间认知发展的研究
Alternative TitleThe Development of 6-10 year-old children's Congntion about Clock Time
朱秀华
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor方格
2005-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword小学儿童 时钟时间 转换 推算 ADHD儿童
Abstract

    儿童时钟时间的认知是儿童习俗时间认知的重要组成部分,是时间认知研究领域的重要方面。研究儿童对习俗时间的认知可以揭示儿童时间认知发展的一般规律和特点。本研究基于前人的研究成果,以6岁、8岁和10岁小学儿童作为被试,用个别施测的方法探查了小学儿童时钟时间转换和推算能力的发展。本研究主要探查如下3个问题:(1)6-10岁儿童时钟时间转换能力及其策略的发展;(2) 6-10岁儿童时钟时间推算能力及其策略的发展;(3)正常儿童和ADHD儿童钟面画测试成绩的比较。
主要研究结果如下:
    (1) 6-10岁儿童时钟时间的认知成绩随年龄增长而不断提高,但是儿童在时钟时间转换和推算这两种不同难度的认知任务上表现出不同的发展速度:时钟时间转换能力的发展早于时钟时间推算能力的发展。在同一任务中儿童对不同类型的时钟时间的认知快速发展期也不同。
    (2) 6-10岁儿童数字时间到钟表时间的转换成绩差于钟表时间到数字时间转换的成绩,并且儿童时钟时间转换能力的发展受转换方向的影响,逆向转换方向下的转换成绩差于正向转换方向下的转换成绩。
    (3) 6-10岁儿童时钟时间的推算中表现出了方向效应和越界效应,但是没有出现距离效应。
    (4) 6-10岁儿童在无提示的时钟时间转换条件中策略的使用随年龄增长由顺时钟画法发展到坐标画法;在有提示的转换条件中主要采用数数和运算的策略;在时钟时间推算中主要采用数字运算的策略进行。
    (5)正常儿童和ADHD儿童钟面画测试成绩中数字的空间排列成绩差异显著。正常儿童和ADHD儿童自由画程序和主试画程序中时钟时间认知成绩差异不显著。

Other Abstract

    This study on clock time can show you how the cognition of clock time developed in 6-, 8-, 10-, year-olds, and focused on three problems: (1)how the children transfer the digital clock time and the analogous clock time.(2)how the children tranform the clock time in reallife story. (3)what difference between the normal chidren and the ADHD children's clock face drawing?
The the main results are as the following:
    (1) Although with different speed, the proformance of transfer and the transformation of clock time in chidren increased with age. The transfer task is easier than the transfomation task.
    (2) Time-telling is easier than time production in the transfer task in 6-10 years-old children. It's easier to transfer the clock time under the clockwise transfer task than the anticlockwise one.
    (3) There is boundary effect when children transform clock time, and the type of task effeted the children's proformance.but no distance effect appeared.
    (4) Different strategies are used in 6-10 year-old children.6-and 8-year-old children draw clockwisely and 10-year-old children use anchoring stimulous to help drawing in clock face drawing task.counting and computation strategies are common in transfer task and computation strategy is the main strategy in transformation task.
    (5) Normal children scored higher than ADHD children in the number spacing in clock face drawing task.there is no difference between the cognition of time in free-drawn clock and the examiner clock procedure in 8-year-old normal and ADHD children

Subject Area心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21824
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱秀华. 小学儿童时钟时间认知发展的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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