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冲突加工中认知控制的一般性/特异性研究
其他题名The Generality/specificity of Cognitive Control in Conflict Resolution
杨国春
学位类型博士
导师刘勋
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知神经科学
关键词认知控制 冲突适应 冲突适应 一般性 /特异性 多变量模式分析 默认网络
摘要

    人们对于认知冲突的加工和解决离不开认知控制的调控作用,而高级认知功能的可迁移性是人类适应快速变化环境的一种进化机制。一般认为,认知控制在不同的冲突加工过程中具有一般性的作用。但是,很多研究发现不同的冲突表现出了特异性和模块化的加工机制,而且认知控制具有明显的分界,比如冲突的维度重叠类别(以下简称类别)。认知控制的一般性和特异性问题亟待深入探讨。
    在本论文中,我们从冲突类别和感觉通道两个方面,从平行比较、可迁移性、相关等逻辑角度探讨了不同冲突之间在认知控制机制上的异同以及产生差异的神经机制。研究一对当前积累的大量关于冲突加工的影像学研究进行了总结,探究了不同类别冲突加工的一般性和特异性的脑机制,发现不同类别的冲突既有共享的也有特异性的脑区。研究二则采用了fMRI分别对不同类别冲突之间加工机制的异同及其相互关系进行了实证探讨,利用一般线性模型分析发现了不同类别冲突的脑激活具有明显的特异性;利用多变量模式分析的方法发现了很多脑区都参与了不同类别冲突的加工,但不同类别的冲突之间无法进行相互预测,这种结果可能在一定程度上解释冲突适应的边界效应。研究三在前人的基础上,考察了感觉通道的异同对冲突适应效应的影响,发现了感觉通道也是认知控制的一种分界,拓展了当前对认知控制模块化的理解。研究四采用视觉和听觉冲突进行fMRI研究,发现了和研究二类似的结果。另外,两个fMRI研究结果都发现了默认网络和背侧注意网络的激活或抑制参与了冲突适应的产生和消失。
    本研究整合了元分析、行为和脑成像研究,从不同的逻辑角度得到了较为一致的结论:(1)感觉通道是冲突适应效应的边界;(2)不同冲突之间的加工机制更多的呈现出特异性而不是一般性;(3)不同冲突在脑激活的强度和空间模式上存在精细化的差别;(4)默认网络和背侧注意网络的激活或抑制可能在冲突适应的发生或消失过程中起到重要作用。

其他摘要

    The processing and resolution of conflicts are impossible without cognitive control, and the transferability of advanced cognitive functions is an evolutionary mechanism of human being to adapt to the rapidly changing environment. It is generally believed that cognitive control plays a general role in the processing of different conflicts. However, many studies have found that different conflicts show specific and modularized mechanisms. Some studies even found that cognitive control has obvious boundaries, such as dimension-overlap type (hereafter type for short). The generality and specificity of cognitive control requires to be further discussed.
    In this thesis, I examined the similarities and difference of the cognitive control mechanisms between different conflicts, and the neural bases that generate the mechanism differences. Based on the logical perspectives of parallel comparison, transferability, and correlation etc., I examined control mechanisms of different conflict types and sensory modalities. A meta-analysis was conducted in Study 1 by summarizing a large number of currently accumulated imaging studies on conflict processing, and the results showed both general and specific brain areas for different conflict types. In Studies 2, fMRI method was applied to empirically investigate the similarities and differences in the mechanisms between conflicts of different types. With general linear model (GLM) analyses, significant specificity of brain activation in different conflicts types was found. Moreover, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) method was applied to reveal that many brain regions are involved in the processing of both conflict types, but mutual predictions cannot be made between conflicts of different types, which may explain the boundary of conflict adaptation to some extent. In Study 3, I examined the conflict adaptation effect between different sensory modalities, and found that the sensory modality is also a boundary of cognitive control, which expanded the current understanding of modularization of cognitive control. In Study 4, similar results as Study 2 were found in an fMRI experiment of visual and auditory conflicts. In addition, both fMRI studies showed that the activation or inhibition of the default network and dorsal attention network is involved in the generation and disappearance of conflict adaptation.
    By integrating meta-analytical, behavioral and brain imaging studies, the current studies draw consistent conclusions based on different logical perspectives: (1) The sensory channel is a boundary of the conflict adaptation effect; (2) The processing mechanisms of different conflicts show more of specificity than generality; (3) Different conflicts have finer differences in brain activation intensity and spatial patterns; (4) Activation or inhibition of default network and dorsal attention network may play an important role in the occurrence or disappearance of conflict adaptation.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26105
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨国春. 冲突加工中认知控制的一般性/特异性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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