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留守儿童依恋发展轨迹及其影响因素:两年的追踪研究
其他题名Developmental Trajectories of Attachment and Effect Factors among Left-behind Children:A Two Years Follow-up Study
吴苏曼
学位类型硕士
导师刘正奎
2018-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词留守儿童 依恋 发展轨迹 影响因素
摘要

    依恋是养育者和婴儿之间特殊的情感联结,具有相对的稳定性,但也会因所处照料环境和经历的生活事件等发生改变。留守儿童主要是指父母一方或双方外出务工而被留在户籍所在地,不能和父母共同生活的未满18周岁未成年人。因父母外出务工,留守儿童与父母长期或反复地分离,并且在非父母看护的不稳定照料环境中成长,因此,他们的依恋受到了严重影响,相比非留守儿童,留守儿童的父母依恋水平较低。
    先前关于留守儿童依恋的研究大多属于横断面研究,难以考察留守儿童的依恋随时间发展的特征和变化趋势。本研究分别于2015, 2016和2017年三次采用自编背景资料调查问卷和修改版的父母与同伴依恋问卷(Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, IPPA,对安徽省合肥市肥东县某中小学四至九年级1061名学生的父母或照料人依恋进行了追踪调查。旨在为留守儿童的相关研究和心理干预丁作捍撰科学的理讼佑据。
    本研究分为两部分。首先,计算三次追踪调查中儿童与父亲、母亲或照料人之间的依恋得分并对其进行潜类别增长模型分析(Latent Class Growth Analysis,LCGA),根据分析结果确定最佳轨迹类型数量,并刻画依恋发展轨迹,考察不同个体所遵循的不同依恋发展轨迹以及遵循不同依恋发展轨迹的个体类别;同时探讨了留守儿童父亲、母亲和照料人依恋水平随时间变化的趋势和依恋发展的稳定性。其次,采用多元逻辑回归模型分析了留守儿童依恋发展轨迹的影响因素。
    本研究得出以下结论:
    (1)总样本的母亲依恋发展轨迹存在三种类型:Gl C6.1%、G2 C34.4%和G3 C59. 5%;而父亲依恋发展轨迹也存在三种类型:G1 C3.3%、G2 (30.1%)和G3 C66.6%)。其中96.7%的儿童的父亲依恋和93.9%的儿童的母亲依恋相对稳定发展,而3.3%的儿童的父亲依恋和6.1%的儿童的母亲依恋发生了明显改变。由此说明,依恋是相对稳定的,但也会根据环境和经历发生改变。
    (2)留守儿童的母亲依恋发展轨迹存在三种类型:G1C5.8%), G2C33.4%)和G3 C60.8 %);父亲依恋发展轨迹存在两种类型:Gl(26.5%)和G2 (73.5%);照料人依恋发展轨迹存在四种类型:Gl C4.2、G2 C12.1、G3 C37.6 %)和G4 C46.0 %)。观察各轨迹发现,留守儿童与父亲的依恋关系较好,且父亲依恋相对稳定发展。而相比父亲,留守儿童的母亲和照料人依恋相对不稳定发展。
综上,留守情况对儿童母亲和照料人依恋的影响更大。
    (3)留守儿童与非留守儿童的依恋发展轨迹存在差异。留守儿童的母亲依恋发展轨迹更加不稳定,在母亲依恋发展轨迹中,一条轨迹呈现出先上升后下降的趋势,且存在不稳定性,本研究将这种趋势的不稳定性定义为不好的依恋发展。此外,留守儿童与父母的依恋水平低于非留守儿童。以上结果表明:留守情况会影响儿童的依恋,不利于儿童的依恋发展。
   (4)年级、留守类型、留守年龄和与父母的电话联系频率是留守儿童父母依恋发展轨迹的重要影响因素。无论父亲外出还是母亲外出都会影响留守儿童与父母的依恋关系;并且父母外出时,儿童的年龄越小,产生的影响越消极;而父母与儿童较高的电话联系频率可能对他们的依恋关系起到缓解作用。此结果对留守儿童依恋问题的干预具有重要的理论意义和实践指导。

其他摘要

    Attachment is a special emotional bond between the caregiver and the infant,
which is relatively stable,but still changes according to the different living environment and experiences. Left-behind children refers to the children who are under 18 and left in their rural hometown when one or both of their parents migrated to urban areas for work. Left-behind children' s attachment is relatively lower than non-left-behind children because they separate with parents perennially or repeatedly and growing up in a situation of parental absence and unstable caregiving.
    Previous studies mostly focus on cross-sectional studies, which are less possible to examine the characteristics and trends of the attachment of left-behind children over time. In this study, we measured 1061 children three times in 2015, 2016 and 2017 using the modified version of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) scale, aiming to provide scientific theoretical basis for the research and intervention of left-behind children    This study consists of two parts. In part 1,we calculated the attachment scores of children with their father, mother, or caregivers in each survey and analyzed by latent class growth analysis. According to the results of analysis, the number of optimal trajectory types was determined and the developmental trajectories of attachment was characterized. Part 1 aims at examining the different developmental trajectories of attachment followed by different individuals and the individual categories of different developmental trajectories of attachment. It also aims at exploring the trends of the attachment levels of left-behind children with fathers, mothers, and caregivers over time and the stability of attachment development. In part 2, we analyzed the factors which affect the developmental trajectories of attachment among left-behind children by multiple logistic regression.
     The main conclusions are as follows:
    (1) There are three developmental trajectories of maternal attachment are found in all students: Gl(6.1%), G2(34.4%), G3(59.5%); there are also three developmental trajectories of paternal attachment: Gl(3.3%), G2(30.1%), G3(66.6%). In maternal and paternal attachment trajectories, 96.7% and 93.9% of children shows relatively stable maternal and paternal attachment. However, 3.3% and 6.1% of children shows notable variability in maternal and paternal attachment. These results explains that attachment is relatively stable, but it also changes because of environment and experiences.
    (2) There are three developmental trajectories of maternal attachment among left-behind children: Gl(5.8%), G2(33.4%), G3(60.8%); there are two developmental trajectories of paternal attachment: Gl(26.5%), G2(73.5%);there are four developmental trajectories of caregiver attachment: Gl(4.2%),  G2(12.1%),G3(37.6%), G4(46.0%). By observing the trajectories, we find that the left-behind children have an better attachment relationship with their father, and their paternal attachment development is relatively stable. Comparing with paternal attachment, the maternal and caregiver' s attachment is relatively unstable. This shows that the “left-behind”condition has a greater impact on the maternal and caregiver' s attachment.
    (3) There is a difference in the developmental trajectories of attachment between left-behind children and non-left-behind children. The developmental trajectories of maternal attachment are more unstable. One of the trajectories of maternal attachment shows a trend of increasing first and decreasing later, and it is unstable. In this study,we believe that the instability of this trend meant a negative development of attachment. In addition, the level of maternal and paternal attachment is lower than that of non-left-behind children. These results show that the“left-behind”condition had a negative effect on children' s attachment development.
    (4) The grade, the left-behind type, the left-behind age and the frequency of
telephone  contact  with  parents  are  important  effect  factors  of  developmental trajectories of maternal and paternal attachment. No matter fathers and mothers go out to work, the attachment relationship between left-behind children and their parents would be significantly effected. At the age of their parents' left, the younger the child was, the more negative impact he would experienced. However, a higher frequency of telephone contact may play a moderating role on children's parental attachment relationship. The results bring theoretical and practical  implications  to  the intervention of left-behind children's attachment problems.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26107
专题应用研究版块
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
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吴苏曼. 留守儿童依恋发展轨迹及其影响因素:两年的追踪研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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