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感觉一运动系统参与动作隐喻理解的认知神经机制
其他题名The Role of Sensory-motor System in Action Metaphor Comprehension and the Relevant Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms
郑玮琦
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰 ; 刘烨
2018-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词动作隐喻 隐喻理解 感觉一运动系统 动作模拟 具身认知
摘要

    言语理解一直是心理学的重要研究领域。传统的心理语言学认为语言是一个符号系统,通过语法组织抽象的、非模态化的符号来表达意义。近年来大量心理语言学研究发现,感觉一运动系统可能参与到言语理解的各个加工水平,这表明语言所表达的意义植根于人类的身体活动和与外界环境的交互中,在语义信息的理解过程中可能会引发对语言中涉及事物的心理模拟,对具身经验进行内在的重建。但是,目前相关研究主要集中在具体的字面含义的语义理解中,尚未有研究系统考察感觉一运动系统参与隐喻理解的认知神经机制。本研究考察动作隐喻句的理解过程中是否存在对动作的心理模拟,以及感觉一运动系统的激活,并考察语句呈现方式、语境等因素是否会对该过程产生影响,进而探讨感觉一运动系统参与动作隐喻加工的时间进程与神经机制。
    研究一采用行为实验考察动作隐喻句的理解过程是否存在动作模拟,以及影响动作模拟的因素。实验1考察动宾整体呈现的条件下简单动作隐喻句的动作一语句相容效应,发现动作隐喻理解过程存在动作模拟,并对相容效应器的反应产生抑制;实验2考察动宾序列呈现条件下简单动作隐喻句的动作一语句相容效应,发现在动词短时呈现条件下动作模拟过程也对相容效应器的反应产生抑制;实验3考察复杂动作隐喻句的动作一语句相容效应,发现在复杂语境条件下,动作隐喻句理解过程没有产生显著的动作一语句相容效应,即可能没有对动作语义产生心理模拟。
    研究二采用脑电实验考察感觉一运动系统参与动作隐喻理解的时间进程。实验4和实验_5使用脑电mu节律作为运动系统活动的指标,考察简单和复杂动作隐喻句理解时运动皮层在动词加工和动宾整合阶段的激活程度。实验4发现运动皮层在简单隐喻句的动词加工和动宾整合阶段都激活,并且在动宾整合阶段激活更强。实验_5发现运动皮层在复杂语境的动作隐喻句理解过程中没有显著激活,进一步的分析表明在宾语阶段,虽然复杂动作隐喻句相比于动作字面句诱发了更强的反映语义违反的theta节律,但在宾语呈现快结束时,动作隐喻句相比于动作字面句,在反映语境整合的晚期正成分上没有显著的差异,表明丰富的语境帮助复杂动作隐喻句完成了后期的精细语义加工,使其在语境匹配上与字面句没有显著差异,不需要感觉一运动系统的参与来帮助隐喻理解。
    研究三采用fMRI技术考察动作隐喻句理解的神经基础。实验6考察动作隐喻句加工时激活的大脑区域,以及肯定含义和否定含义条件下,感觉一运动系统参与动作隐喻理解时激活程度的差异。结果发现动作隐喻句理解过程激活了包括初级和更高级的感觉一运动系统的脑区,以及和动作信息语义整合有关的脑区,并且否定含义条件下这些区域的激活被抑制。
    本研究系统考察动作隐喻句理解过程中是否存在对动作的心理模拟,以及感觉一运动系统参与加工的时间进程与神经基础,并初步揭示了动作隐喻理解的认知神经机制,提出感觉一运动系统灵活、有选择性地参与动作隐喻理解的理论模型,丰富了隐喻理解的理论,有助于我们进一步了解隐喻如何形成,以及如何习得更加抽象的语义概念。

其他摘要

   Language comprehension is an important domain in psychology. Traditional psycholinguists proposed that language is a symbol system, and the meaning can be expressed by abstract and amodal symbols through grammar organization. Recently, a number of psycholinguistics research found that sensory-motor system engaged in different processing levels in language comprehension, suggesting that meaning is grounded  in  body  activities  and  interaction  with  surroundings.  The  semantic comprehension might require mental simulation and reconstruction of embodied experience. However, previous studies primarily concerned about comprehension of literal meanings, there is no systematic studies  about the cognitive and neural mechanisms of sensory-motor system's engagement in metaphor comprehension. Firstly, the current study explored whether action metaphor comprehension requires the action simulation and thus involves sensory-motor system. Secondly, the current study examined whether the action metaphor comprehension will be influenced by how sentence is presented or by context. Thirdly, the current study aimed to investigate the time course of sensory-motor system's involvement in action metaphor comprehension and the corresponding neural correlates.
    Study 1 used behavioral experiments to investigate whether there is action simulation during action metaphor comprehension in different conditions. Experiment 1 found the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) in the condition that verb-object phrases presented together during simple action metaphor comprehension. Experiment 2 found the ACE in the condition that verb presented within short duration alone. Experiment 3 showed that there is no evident ACE in complex action metaphor comprehension.
    Study 2 adopted EEG technique to explore the time course of sensory-motor system's participation in action metaphor comprehension. The mu rhythm was used as the index to reflect the activation of motor system. Experiment 4 found the activation of motor system occurred in verb and object parts and became stronger in object part during simple action metaphor comprehenison. Experiment _5 found that there is no evident activation of motor system during complex action metaphor comprehension. In addition, complex action metaphor induced a stronger theta rhytm than literal sentence in object part, which reflected the semantic violation. However, around 800一1000 ms after object appeared, the late positive latency showed that there was no significant difference between metaphor and literal sentence, which indicated that context can help late elaborate processing during action metaphor comprehension.
    Study 3 adopted fMRI technique to probe the neural basis of acion metaphor processing. Experiment 6 found that action metaphor comprehension activated primary and secondary sensory-motor system and areas involved in action semantic integration. Furthermore, when the meaning of the sentence was negated, the activation of the areas mentioned above was decreased.
    The current paper revealed the cognitive and neural mechanism of sensory-motor system's role in action metaphor comprehension, and proposed that sensory-motor system participated in action metaphor comprehension flexibly and selectively. The results enrich the theory of metaphor comprehension and thus help understand how abstract concepts are formed and learned by metaphors.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26154
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郑玮琦. 感觉一运动系统参与动作隐喻理解的认知神经机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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