|其他名称||Preschoolers’ Ownership Judgments Basing on First Possession in Different Involvement Conditions|
|关键词||先占 所有权 动机 卷入|
摘要：先占是人类判断所有权的重要原则之一。以往研究表明，3岁幼儿就能基于先占线索判断所有权，但这些研究均是让幼儿站在第三方立场进行判断，其缺陷在于忽视了被试动机的作用。本研究通过设置被试卷入和非卷入两种条件，考察了3岁（N = 38）和5岁幼儿（N = 37）基于第一方立场和基于第三方立场的所有权判断。在卷入条件下，幼儿自身作为参与者，在一间房间内与主试操纵的手偶玩找礼物的游戏。在非卷入条件下，幼儿观看两个主体在相同的房间找礼物的视频。两种条件下均有一人先找到礼物，但在卷入条件下，礼物总是先被手偶找到。在每种条件的实验最后，提问幼儿找到的礼物应该给谁。结果发现，无论是卷入条件还是非卷入条件，3岁幼儿和5岁幼儿都更倾向于支持先占者为所有者（3岁幼儿卷入条件，χ2(1)= 15.16，p=.000；3岁幼儿非卷入条件，χ2(1)= 5.16，p=.023；5岁幼儿卷入条件，χ2(1)= 9.76，p=.002；5岁幼儿非卷入条件，χ2(1)= 29.43，p=.000）。3岁幼儿在卷入和非卷入条件下选择先占者的人数不存在显著差异，χ2(1)= 1.75，p>.05，5岁幼儿在非卷入条件下比卷入条件下更倾向于选择先占者为所有者，χ2(1)= 4.55，p<.05。卷入条件下， 3岁幼儿和5岁幼儿选择先占者为所有者的人数比例之间不存在显著差异，χ2(1)= .39，p>.05；非卷入条件下，5岁幼儿比3岁幼儿更倾向于选择先占者为所有者，χ2(1)= 8.46，p<.01。结果表明，年长幼儿的所有权判断更易受动机因素的影响。
Abstract:First possession is one of the most important principles that people often use to infer ownership. Previous studies have revealed that three-year-olds could infer ownership basing on the cue of first possession. However, in most of these studies, children were asked to make ownership judgments in the third-party stance. The deficiency is that they neglected the role of motivation. This study discriminated the involvement condition and the noninvolvement condition and investigated 3-year-olds’ (N = 38) and 5-year-olds’ (N = 37) ownership judgments in the first-party stance and in the third-party stance. In the involvement condition, subjects were asked to seek a gift together with a hand puppet manipulated by the experimenter in a room. In the noninvolvement condition, subjects were presented with a video in which two different people seek the gift in a same room. There would be a first finder in both conditions, but the hand puppet would be the first finder throughout the involvement condition. Finally, children were asked to judge whom the present should be given. The results revealed that whether in the involvement condition or in the noninvolvement condition, both 3-year-olds and 5-year-olds tended to support the first possessor as owner (3-year-olds in the involvement condition, χ2(1)= 15.16,p=.000; 3-year-olds in the noninvolvement condition,χ2(1)= 5.16,p=.023; 5-year-olds in the involvement condition, χ2(1)= 9.76,p=.002; 3-year-olds in the noninvolvement condition,χ2(1)= 29.43,p=.000). For 3-year-olds, subjects who selected the first possessor did not differ between two conditions, χ2(1)= 1.75,p>.05. But for 5-year-olds, they were more likely to select the first possessor as owner in the noninvolvement condition than in the involvement condition, χ2(1)= 4.55, p<.05. There was no significant difference between 3-year-olds and 5-year-olds that selected the first possessor as owner in the involvement condition, χ2(1)= .39, p>.05. However, more 5-year-olds tended to select the first possessor than the 3-year-olds in the noninvolvement condition, χ2(1)= 8.46, p<.01. In sum, the results suggest older preschoolers’ ownership judgments weremore susceptible to the motivational factors.