|Alternative Title||The Relation ship between Work Engagement and Psychological Well-being of Chinese Civil Servants: A Mediated Moderation Model|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|Keyword||工作投入 家长式领导 心理韧性 心理幸福感 公务员|
首先使用Mplus 7.3对各量表进行验证性因素分析，完成共同方法偏差的检验;使用SPSS 22.0完成描述性统计、对工作投入、心理韧性和心理幸福感的人口学变量方差分析，并根据单因素方差分析和事后检验结果筛选进入结构方程模型的人口学变量。在对有关变量进行相关和回归分析后，提出一个以工作投入为自变量、三类家长式领导风格为调节变量、心理韧性为中介变量，心理幸福感为因变量的有中介的调节模型。最后，使用Mplus 7.3，在控制与中介变量和因变量显著相关的人口学变量的基础上，通过结构方程模型的观察变量路径分析，考察变量间的路径系数，分别检验仁慈、德行和威权三类家长式领导风格下的模型拟合度和有效性，完成有中介的调节模型检验。
相关分析表明，我国公务员工作投入与心理韧性(γ=0.692, p<0.01)及心理幸福感(γ=0.297, p<0.01)显著正相关;仁慈领导风格与心理韧性(γ=0.433, p<0.01)及心理幸福感(γ=0.158, p<0.01)显著正相关;德行领导风格与心理韧性(γ= 0.401, p<0.01)及心理幸福感(γ=0.330, p<0.01)显著正相关;威权领导风格与心理韧性间的相关不显著，与心理幸福感(γ=-0.435,p<0.01)显著负相关;心理韧性与心理幸福感(γ=0.470, p<0.01)显著正相关。
回归分析表明，在控制相关人口学变量的情况下，工作投入对心理韧性(β=0.683 , p<0.001 )和心理幸福感（β=0.284, p<0.001)具显著正向预测作用;仁慈领导风格对一心理韧性（β=0.406, p< 0.001)和心理幸福感（β=0.147,p<0.01)具显著正向预测作用;德行领导风格对心理韧性（β=0.354, p<0.001)和心理幸福感（β=0.288, p<0.001)具显著正向预测作用;威权领导风格对心理幸福感具显著负向预测作用(β=0.363, p<0.001)，心理韧性对威权领导风格的回归不显著;心理韧性对心理幸福感具有显著正向预测作用(β=0.465，p<0.001)。
有中介的调节效应模型检验表明，德行领导风格对我国公务员工作投入与心理幸福感的关系具显著正向调节效应(γ=0.084 y p<0.05 )，而威权领导风格具显著负向调节效应(γ=0.170, p<0.001)，仁慈领导风格的直接调节效应不显著;心理韧性是德行领导风格调节效应的完全中介，是威权领导风格调节效应的部分中介(经由中介的间接调节效应为-0.04，占总调节效应的23.5% ) 。
Objective: This study was conducted to explor0c the relationship between work engagement and psychological well-being of Chinese civil servants. The moderations to this relationship by three different paternalistic leadership styles: benevolent, moral, and authoritarian leadership were examined, and whether these moderations were mediated by the resilience was also investigated. By the research of the impact mechanism of work engagement on psychological well-being, this study aims to provide suggestion for enhancing work engagement, improving leadership systems, strengthening psychological well-being, optimizing psychological intervention strategies, and promoting the mental health level of Chinese civil servants under the general background of Civil service system reform.
Methods: 411 Chinese civil servants from all over China and serving at different departments were surveyed by a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of four pars: Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was used to measure the level of their work engagement，Paternalistic Leadership Style Scale was used to measure the level of three paternalistic leadership styles of the leaders in charge of their departments, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure the level of their resilience, and Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale was used to measure the level of their psychological well-being (All the scales were the Chinese version); Demographic variables such as gender and age were also asked in the same questionnaire.
Firstly, confirmatory factor analyses of the scales used in this study and test of common method variance wart conducted by Mplus 7.3, while the descriptive statistics, the one-way ANOVA and post hoc of demographic variables to work engagement, the resilience, and psychological well-being, by which the covariates were filtered to enter the SEM were conducted by SPSS 22.0. After the Pearson's analysis and the regression analysis of the concerning variables wart conducted, a mediated moderation model was established with work engagement as independent variable, three paternalistic leadership styles as moderators, the resilience as mediator, and psychological well-being as dependent variable. Finally, with controlled demographic variables which had significant impact on the mediator and (or) the dependent variable, the path coefficients in the SCM were reviewed by the path analyses of observation variables in order to the fits and the validities of the models. Three paternalistic leadership styles were tested respectively.
Results: The descriptive analysis showed: the work engagement, three paternalistic leadership styles of civil service departments, the resilience, and psychological well-being of Chinese civil servants were all in the upper level, but the individual differences were large. The one-way ANOVA and the post hoc of demographic variables showed: the variables that had significant impact on the engagement included: Marital status (those married were higher than the singles), political (Communist party members were higher than the non Communist party members), Division of labor (those in administrative service departments were higher than those in operating departments); The impact of Ranks was: those whose ranks were above director were higher than those whose ranks were clerks or below clerks, and were also higher than the principle section members or assistant principle section members, but were not significant different from the section chiefs; The impact of monthly income was: those with income over RMB 8000 per month were significantly higher than those with income less than RMB 5000 per month, but were not significantly different from those with incomes between RMB 5001-8000.
The variables that had significant impact on the resilience included: Marital status (those married were higher than the singles), Political (Communist party members were higher than the non Communist party members), Religion (those of no religion were higher than the religious), Division of labor (those in administrative service departments were higher than those in operating departments); Monthly income was also a factor of influence, but only those with income over RMB 8000 per month were significantly higher. than those with income less than IZMB 5000 per month, those with incomes between RMB 5001.8000 were not significantly different from the other two groups according to the post hoc. Variables that had significant impact on psychological well.bcing included: Cicndcr (females were higher than males), Marital status (those married were higher than the singles), Political (Communist party members were higher than the non Communist party members), Division of labor (those in administrative service departments were higher than those in operating departments), Age( those over 40 were lower than the other two groups who were under 40), Rank (those whose ranks were above director were lower than the other three groups whose ranks were below director). The impact of years of working was as follows: those with 5 years of work experience or less were lower than those with 6-10 years of work experience; 6-10 years were significantly higher than 15-20 years, while 11-15 years and over 20 years were not significantly differ0ent from the other groups.
The Pearson's analysis of correlation showed: for Chinese civil servants, work engagement was positively and significantly correlated with the resilience(γ=0.692，p <0.01) and psychological well-being(γ=0.297，p<0.01); the benevolent leadership style was positively and significantly correlated with the resilience(γ=0.43 3，p<0.01) and psychological well-being(r=0.158，p<0.01);the moral leadership style was positively and significantly correlated with the resilience(γ=0.401，p<0.01) and psychological well-being(γ=0.330，p<0.01); the authoritarian leadership style was not correlated with the resilience significantly, while was negatively and significantly correlated with psychological well}being(γ=0.43，p<0.01); the resilience was positively and significantly correlated with psychological well-being (γ=0.470，p<0.01).
The regression analysis showed: with controlled demographic variables, work engagement could predict the resilience(γ=0.683，p<0.001) and psychological wellpbeing(γ=0.284，p<0.001)positively and significantly; the benevolent leadership style could predict the resilience(β=0.406, p<0.001)and psychological well-being(β=0.147,p<0.01)positively and significantly; the moral leadershipstyle could predict the resilience（β=0.354，p<0.001) and psychological well-being（β=0.288，p<0.001) positively and significantly; the authoritarian leadership style could predict psychological welldbeing(,(β= -0.363，p<0.001) negatively and significantly, while the regression from the resilience to the authoritarian leadership style was not significant; the resilience could predict psychological wellebeing（β=0.465，p<0.001) positively and significantly. The test of the mediated moderation model showed: The moral leadership could moderate the relationship between work engagement and psychological well-being positively(β=0.084, p<0.05) while the authoritarian leadership could moderate the relationship negatively(β=-0.170, p<0.001), the moderation of the benevolent leadership was not significant; The resilience could mediate the moderation of the moral leadership style completely or the moderation of the authoritarian leadership style partly (the mediated moderation was -0.04, or 23.5% of the whole moderation).
Conclusion: For Chinese civil servants, their work engagement could predict psychological well-being positively, while the relationship between work engagement and psychological well-being was moderated by the moral or authoritarian leader0ship style. The positive effect of work engagement on psychological well-being, mediated by the resilience, will be stronger for those civil servants whose leaders possess high-level moral leadership style or low-level authoritarian leadership style. In real situation, besides improving the psychological well-being of Chinese civil servants by enhancing their work engagement, it is also desirable to advance the moral leadership style and suppress the authoritarian leadership level.
|王羽. 我国公务员工作投入与心里幸福感的关系研究：有中介的调节模型[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2017.|
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