PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
多范例训练提高4-7岁儿童隐喻理解能力的有效性性研究
Alternative TitleThe Effectiveness of Multi-.sample Training for Children Aged 4 to 7 by Establishing Relational Frame on Metaphors
毛晓翎
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor祝卓宏
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword多范例训练 儿童 隐喻 关系框架理论
Abstract

隐喻作为最常见的一种修辞手法,应用于我们生活的方方面面,它不仅是一种修辞手法,更是一种思维方式,影响着我们的知识学习和社会交往,帮助人类利用熟悉领域的经验来组织不熟悉领域的经验,形成态度并采取行动。在通过己知了解未知的同时,有助于更深入地理解己知的事物,使得人类不断加深对自身及外界的认知。本研究目的:旨在通过多范例训练的方式建立刺激间的关系框架,以此提高4-7岁儿童隐喻理解能力,并进行检验。同时,研究可能影响本年龄段儿童隐喻理解能力的因素。

方法:主试根据入组条件在某幼儿园征集56名4-7岁儿童作为被试,按实验流程进行一对一实验,并按要求记录被试的反应,如回答正误、复述情况、词汇理解程度等。每次实验均有一名观察者,不参与实验,只记录被试反应。实验后量化分析观察者间一致性。本实验为被试内设计,实验主要分为基线阶段、多范例训练阶段、训练后检验阶段。其中多范例训练阶段和训练后检验阶段均包含泛化检验。借鉴Persicke等人关于孤独症儿童隐喻推理多范例训练的故事材料,根据预实验的结果进行本土化改编,以使其符合中文惯用表达方式。请3名幼教老师对故事内容及问题进行1-5点评分。每个故事的3个问题均能到达3.5以上的评分贝日被纳入测试材料。

研究得到以下结果:

实验数据使用IBMSPSSStatisticsS22进行分析。

第一,基线阶段和训练后阶段经简单效应分析差异显著F (1,56)=58.53, p<0.05;两阶段相同的故事实验结果经配对样本t检验分析同样显示差异显著t(1, 56)=-33.849 p<0.050

第二,经重复测量方差分析发现,年龄主效应显著F ( 2, 56 ) =61.80 9 p<0.05,事后检验结果同样显著;年龄与阶段交互效应显著F ( 2,56)=4.79 9 p<0.05。

第三,经非参数检验中的Kruskal-Wallis方差分析结果显示各被试间对隐喻理解能力具有显著差异,x²=602.86, p<0.05.

第五,根据实验过程中记录的信息分析得出,回答正误与以下三个因素显著相关:能否复述F ( 2,56 ) =60.09, p<0.05; 语境是否熟悉F (1,56) =3.67, p<0.05; 词汇的理解程度F (1,56) =93.47, p<0.05。并且语是否境熟悉与词汇理解程度交互效应显著F (1,56 )=3.82, p<0.05。经过回归分析Y=b1X+b2X+a ( b1=0.799 b2=0.73 ), Y为回答正误,X为对语境的熟悉程度和词汇的理解程度。

本文结论为:

第一,多范例训练对提高4-7岁儿童隐喻理解能力是有效的。

第二,基线阶段和训练后阶段的故事在训练阶段均未出现,这证明了隐喻理解能力是可以泛化的。

第三,4-7岁儿童对隐喻的理解能力随年龄增长而提高,并且在同样的完成训练阶段任务的标准下,大龄组所需的训练次数要少于小龄组。

第四,回答正误受到能否复述、语境熟悉程度、词汇理解程度显著影响,语境熟悉程度对隐喻理解的影响力可能比词汇理解程度更大。语境熟悉程度、词汇理解能力等因素影响儿童在隐喻的本体与喻体之间建立联系。

第五,4-7岁儿童的隐喻理解能力受到当前关系框架的架构形式、认知发展水平、生活经历和知识储备的共同影响。

第六,4-7岁儿童对隐喻的理解能力在性别上没有显著差异。

Other Abstract

Metaphor as the most common rhetorical device is used in all aspects of our lives. It is not only a rhetorical device, but a way of thinking. It affects our knowledge of learning and social interaction. It helps human beings to use the experience in the familiar field to organize the experience in the unfamiliar field, to form the attitudes and take actions. The understanding the unknown with the help of the known will contribute to a deeper understanding of known things, so that human beings continue to deepen their understanding and perception of themselves and the outside world.

Objective: This study aimed to establish the relationship framework among the stimulations by way of a mufti-paradigm of training, in order to improve the ability to understand metaphor for children aged 4-7, and to test. At the same time, study the factors that influence the metaphor comprehension for children at this age group.

Method: The main trial were performed in a nursery by selecting 56 of 4-7 year-old children and one by one testing in accordance with the definite experimental process, and recording the reactions of the tested such as the right or wrong answer, the repeating situation, the degree of understanding vocabulary et.al. There was an observer who was not involved in the experiment in each experiment, but his reaction was recorded too. The consistencies of those observers were also analyzed. The experiments were inner-designed and divided into several stages of baseline experiment, mufti-paradigm of training and the testing after training. The generalization tests were applied to the phases of both the mufti-paradigm of training and the post-training. Based on Persicke's materials about the metaphorical reasoning and mufti-paradigm of training for autistic children and the results of preliminary experiments, the test method were improved to adapt the local children to be consistent with Chinese idiomatic expressions. The three kindergarten teachers gave 1-5 points for story contents or questions. And the three questions in each story which can reach 3.5 or more ratings were included in the test material.

Results:

Experimental data were analyzed on an IBM SPSS Statistics 22 computer.

First,the baseline and post-training phases show significant difference F (1,56)=58..53, p<0.05 after the simple effect analysis; the same stories from those two stages also show significant differences after the paired samples t-test analysis, t (1,56)=-33.84, p<0.05.

Second, the repeating measure analysis of variance indicates that age is a significant main effect F (2,56)=61. 80, p<0.05, post-test results are also significant, that means that the interaction between age and stage are significant too F (2,56)=4.79, p< 0.05.

Third, It was found from Kruskal-Wallis analysis of varianceor the non-parametric test that, the abilities to understand metaphor resulting from different stage tests are obvious different, x²= 602.86, p<0.05.

Fourth, the difference of the ability to understand metaphor between boy and girl (gender) is not significant.

Fifth, according to the information recorded during experiments and their analysis results, right or wrong answer significantly associated with the following three factors: the ability to repeat F (2,56)=60.09, p<0.05; Context familiarity F (1,56)=3.67, p<0.05; comprehension vocabulary F (1,56)=93.47, p<0.05, and the interaction between context familiarity and comprehension vocabulary F (1,56)=3.82, p<0.05. After regression the expression Y=b1X +b2X+a (b1=0. 79, b2=0.73) was obtained,where Y is right or wrong answer, X is the degree of understanding of the context familiarity and vocabulary.

Conclusion:

First, the results of this study show that multiple examples of training is helpful to improve the understanding of metaphorical language for children aged 4-7.

Second, the stories that appeared in the baseline phase and the post-training phase were not found in the training stage, which proved the ability to understand metaphor can be generalized.

Third, the ability to understand metaphor for children aged 4-7 improves with children's ages, and at the same training completion stage and the mission criteria, the older group requires less training times than those younger age groups.

Fourth, being able to repeat the answer right or wrong, is significantly affected by the degree of understanding of vocabulary, context familiarity. The context familiarity may have much greater effect on metaphor comprehension than that of the vocabulary level of understanding. Context familiarity, vocabulary comprehension and other factors affect children to establish a link between the body and the metaphor.

Pages41
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28984
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
毛晓翎. 多范例训练提高4-7岁儿童隐喻理解能力的有效性性研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
毛晓翎-硕士学位论文.pdf(4516KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[毛晓翎]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[毛晓翎]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[毛晓翎]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.