|Alternative Title||The Effectiveness of Multi-.sample Training for Children Aged 4 to 7 by Establishing Relational Frame on Metaphors|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|Keyword||多范例训练 儿童 隐喻 关系框架理论|
第一，基线阶段和训练后阶段经简单效应分析差异显著F (1,56)=58.53, p<0.05;两阶段相同的故事实验结果经配对样本t检验分析同样显示差异显著t(1, 56)=-33.849 p<0.050
第二，经重复测量方差分析发现，年龄主效应显著F ( 2, 56 ) =61.80 9 p<0.05，事后检验结果同样显著;年龄与阶段交互效应显著F ( 2,56)=4.79 9 p<0.05。
第五，根据实验过程中记录的信息分析得出，回答正误与以下三个因素显著相关:能否复述F ( 2,56 ) =60.09, p<0.05; 语境是否熟悉F (1,56) =3.67, p<0.05; 词汇的理解程度F (1,56) =93.47, p<0.05。并且语是否境熟悉与词汇理解程度交互效应显著F (1,56 )=3.82, p<0.05。经过回归分析Y=b1X+b2X+a ( b1=0.799 b2=0.73 ), Y为回答正误，X为对语境的熟悉程度和词汇的理解程度。
Metaphor as the most common rhetorical device is used in all aspects of our lives. It is not only a rhetorical device, but a way of thinking. It affects our knowledge of learning and social interaction. It helps human beings to use the experience in the familiar field to organize the experience in the unfamiliar field, to form the attitudes and take actions. The understanding the unknown with the help of the known will contribute to a deeper understanding of known things, so that human beings continue to deepen their understanding and perception of themselves and the outside world.
Objective: This study aimed to establish the relationship framework among the stimulations by way of a mufti-paradigm of training, in order to improve the ability to understand metaphor for children aged 4-7, and to test. At the same time, study the factors that influence the metaphor comprehension for children at this age group.
Method: The main trial were performed in a nursery by selecting 56 of 4-7 year-old children and one by one testing in accordance with the definite experimental process, and recording the reactions of the tested such as the right or wrong answer, the repeating situation, the degree of understanding vocabulary et.al. There was an observer who was not involved in the experiment in each experiment, but his reaction was recorded too. The consistencies of those observers were also analyzed. The experiments were inner-designed and divided into several stages of baseline experiment, mufti-paradigm of training and the testing after training. The generalization tests were applied to the phases of both the mufti-paradigm of training and the post-training. Based on Persicke's materials about the metaphorical reasoning and mufti-paradigm of training for autistic children and the results of preliminary experiments, the test method were improved to adapt the local children to be consistent with Chinese idiomatic expressions. The three kindergarten teachers gave 1-5 points for story contents or questions. And the three questions in each story which can reach 3.5 or more ratings were included in the test material.
Experimental data were analyzed on an IBM SPSS Statistics 22 computer.
First，the baseline and post-training phases show significant difference F (1,56)=58..53, p<0.05 after the simple effect analysis; the same stories from those two stages also show significant differences after the paired samples t-test analysis, t (1，56)=-33.84, p<0.05.
Second, the repeating measure analysis of variance indicates that age is a significant main effect F (2,56)=61. 80, p<0.05, post-test results are also significant, that means that the interaction between age and stage are significant too F (2,56)=4.79, p< 0.05.
Third, It was found from Kruskal-Wallis analysis of varianceor the non-parametric test that, the abilities to understand metaphor resulting from different stage tests are obvious different, x²= 602.86, p<0.05.
Fourth, the difference of the ability to understand metaphor between boy and girl (gender) is not significant.
Fifth, according to the information recorded during experiments and their analysis results, right or wrong answer significantly associated with the following three factors: the ability to repeat F (2,56)=60.09, p<0.05; Context familiarity F (1,56)=3.67, p<0.05; comprehension vocabulary F (1,56)=93.47, p<0.05, and the interaction between context familiarity and comprehension vocabulary F (1,56)=3.82, p<0.05. After regression the expression Y=b1X +b2X+a (b1=0. 79, b2=0.73) was obtained，where Y is right or wrong answer, X is the degree of understanding of the context familiarity and vocabulary.
First, the results of this study show that multiple examples of training is helpful to improve the understanding of metaphorical language for children aged 4-7.
Second, the stories that appeared in the baseline phase and the post-training phase were not found in the training stage, which proved the ability to understand metaphor can be generalized.
Third, the ability to understand metaphor for children aged 4-7 improves with children's ages, and at the same training completion stage and the mission criteria, the older group requires less training times than those younger age groups.
Fourth, being able to repeat the answer right or wrong, is significantly affected by the degree of understanding of vocabulary, context familiarity. The context familiarity may have much greater effect on metaphor comprehension than that of the vocabulary level of understanding. Context familiarity, vocabulary comprehension and other factors affect children to establish a link between the body and the metaphor.
|毛晓翎. 多范例训练提高4-7岁儿童隐喻理解能力的有效性性研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.|
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