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幼儿文字与面孔专家化加工的关系及其影响因素
Alternative TitleThe Relationship between Visual Specialization for Word and Face in Young Children
张文芳
2020-07
Abstract

掌握阅读技能对于人类的生存至关重要。在阅读学习早期阶段,对儿童来说,文字信息的加工非常重要。面孔作为人类最为显著的外部特征,能够提供给我们丰富的社会信息,有助于顺利交往和适应环境。因此,在儿童早期发展过程中,对面孔这一具有特殊进化意义和社会交往意义的信息的加工也很重要。以往研究多单独研究文字或者面孔加工的早期发展,较少关注儿童对两类刺激加工之间的关系。本研究以视觉加工专家化为核心,通过纵向研究设计,综合行为研究和脑电研究(静息态和任务态),探查儿童在幼儿期对这两类视觉刺激加工的关系及其影响因素。

本研究由三部分研究组成,共七个实验。研究一首先检验文字与面孔专家化加工之间的关系及其特异性。实验1 采用颜色判断任务,考察5 岁儿童文字与面孔专家化加工之间的关系。实验2 以房屋刺激作为参照,考察儿童文字与面孔专家化加工关系的特异性。研究一的结果表明,以偏侧化系数为指标,文字和面孔N170 的偏侧化程度之间呈显著负相关,表现出竞争关系。5 岁儿童文字加工左侧化程度越高,其面孔加工的右侧化程度越低。与房屋刺激相比,文字与面孔专家化加工之间的关系未表现出特异性。

在研究二中,实验3、实验4 和实验5 分别探测文字经验、文字视觉正字法加工能力和面孔识别能力对二者专家化加工关系的影响。在实验3 中,将识字量测试作为文字经验的指标。考虑到学前儿童尚未接受正式的阅读教育,同时采用文字意识来衡量儿童的早期文字经验。在实验4 中,文字视觉正字法加工能力从文字方向敏感性和部件识别能力两个方面考察。在实验5 中,采用面孔识别任务探查儿童面孔识别的准确性和速度。研究二的结果表明,儿童5 岁时的文字意识、文字镜像敏感性以及3 岁时的面孔识别能力会调节文字与面孔加工偏侧化之间的竞争关系,表现为当儿童的文字意识、镜像敏感性及面孔识别能力提高时,文字与面孔加工偏侧化的竞争关系加强。

研究三探查了影响文字与面孔加工关系的一般认知因素,包括两个实验。实验6考察视知觉能力(视知觉空间关系、视知觉区分性和视知觉封闭性)对文字与面孔专家化加工关系的影响。实验7采用静息态脑电任务获取不同频段脑电活动的能量信息,考察大脑活动状态对文字与面孔专家化加工关系的影响。研究三的结果表明,视知觉能力和gamma频段能量对文字与面孔加工偏侧化之间的竞争关系起调节作用,表现为当儿童的视知觉能力和gamma能量提高时,文字与面孔加工偏侧化之间的竞争关系减弱或消失。

本研究得出以下结论:5岁幼儿文字加工的左侧化和面孔加工的右侧化之间存在竞争关系。文字N170左侧化程度越高,面孔N170右侧化程度越低。5岁幼儿文字加工和面孔加工偏侧化之间的关系受到他们3岁时面孔识别能力和5岁时文字识别能力的调节。面孔识别能力和文字识别的提高会加强二者的竞争关系。5岁幼儿文字加工和面孔加工偏侧化之间的关系受到他们4岁和5岁时视知觉能力和gamma频段能力的调节。视知觉能力的提高和认知资源的增强会使得二者的竞争关系减弱或消失。

本研究探讨了发展早期儿童文字与面孔专家化加工之间的关系,揭示出影响二者关系动态变化的重要因素,从发展的视角为理解人类大脑是如何“最优”地加工和处理文字和面孔信息提供了新的和重要的实证数据。

Other Abstract

Reading, a unique spiritual activity of human beings, is necessary in a civilized society. In the early stage of reading learning, it is very important to process visual features of words. Face, as the most prominent external feature of human beings, provides us with a wealth of social information, which can help people to communicate and adapt to the environment. Previous studies have mostly studied the early development of word or face processing alone and did not directly focus on the relationship between the two types of stimuli processing. Through the longitudinal research design, including behavioral research and EEG research (resting and task states), the current study focused on the relationship between visual specialization for Chinese characters and face in young children and explore the factor that affect such the relation.

In Study 1,the relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization was first tested. The color judgment tasks were used in Experiment 1 to examine the relationship between word and face specialization of children aged 5. Experiment 2 used the house stimuli as a reference to examine the specificity of the relationship between children's Chinese characters and face specialization. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the degree of lateralization for Chinese character and face while using the lateralization index as an indicator, that is, the higher the degree of left-hemisphere Chinese character lateralization was, the lower the degree of right-hemisphere face lateralization would be. Further results showed that the relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization was not specific with comparing to house stimuli.

Study 2 explored the effects of reading experience, visual-orthography, and face recognition ability on the relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization. In Experiment 3, a Chinese character sight vocabulary was tested. In addition, considering that preschool children had not received formal reading instruction, print awareness measurement was used to measure children's early reading experience. In Experiment 4, visual orthography processing included two aspects: orientation sensitivity to Chinese character and radical recognition. In experiment 5, the face recognition task was used to investigate the influence of children's accuracy and speed of face processing. The results of Study 2 showed that print awareness and mirrored orientation sensitivity to Chinese character at the age of 5 years old played a moderating role in the competitive relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization. And face recognition at the age of 3 showed the moderate effect as well. Specifically, when the print awareness, the mirrored orientation sensitivity to Chinese characters, and the ability of face recognition increase, the competition between Chinese characters and face specialization was strengthened.

Study 3 explored the domain-general factors affecting the relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization by conducting two experiments. A visual perception ability test was used in Experiment 6 to examine the influence of visual perception ability (spatial relationship, discrimination, and closure) on the relationship. The EEG tasks were used in Experiment 7 to obtain the spectral power in different frequency bands, and the influence of brain status on the relationship was examined. The results of Study 3 showed that visual perception ability and spectral power in gamma band played a moderating role on the competitive relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization. When the visual perception ability and spectral power in gamma increase at the age of 4 and 5, the competition between Chinese characters and face specialization was weakened or disappear.

Using the N170 laterafization index as an indicator, the current study draw the following conclusions. There exist a competitive relationship between visual specialization for Chinese characters and face for 5-year-old children. The higher the degree of left-hemisphere Chinese character lateralization was, the lower the degree of right-hemisphere face lateralization would be. Meanwhile, the competitive relationship was moderated by their face recognition ability at the age of 3 and visual-orthograpic ability at the age of 5. And the improvement of character and face recognition ability could strengthen the competitive relationship between Chinese characters and face specialization. The competitive relationship was also moderated by children's visual perception ability and spectral power in gamma band at the age of 4 and 5. The visual perception ability and spectral power in gamma could make the competitive relationship decrease or disappear.

The present research explored the relationship between visual specializations for Chinese characters and face and explained the possible mechanism of such the relationship. The findings provided new empirical data for how human's brain optimally processes faces and words.

Keyword视觉专家化 视觉正字法加工 面孔识别能力 视知觉能力 gamma 能量
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/33939
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张文芳. 幼儿文字与面孔专家化加工的关系及其影响因素[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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