听力障碍与听力正常群体视觉注意发展及其机制的比较
其他题名The Comparison on the Development and Mechanism of Visual Attention between the Hearing Impaired Population and Hearing Population
张兴利
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2007-06-06
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词听力障碍 视觉注意 发展 缺陷假设 补偿假设 空间分配 注意控制
摘要各种感觉通道输入的交互作用和整合对个体发展非常重要。对一个感觉系统的损坏就会影响其它感觉系统的组织和机能,目前,关于某种感觉系统的损坏对其他感觉系统功能的影响有两种基本假设:缺陷假设(deficiency hypothesis)和补偿假设(compensation hypothesis)。 那么,对于听力障碍个体,由于听觉障碍,会对视觉注意造成什么影响呢?这就是本研究旨在系统考察的问题。 本研究选取非言语智力正常的听力障碍(hearing impaired)和听力正常(hearing)学生作为被试,研究一和研究二考察了7岁到成人期听力障碍群体和听力正常群体的持续注意和选择性注意发展,围绕听力障碍群体的视觉注意发展、缺陷假设和补偿假设对结果展开讨论;研究三和研究四根据研究一、二获得的结果,分别考察了在视觉注意技能受损阶段和补偿阶段被试的视觉注意空间分配和视觉注意控制。获得以下主要结论: (1)听力障碍群体和听力正常群体的持续视觉注意发展趋势一致:童年中期儿童的持续注意随龄逐渐提高,青少年期达到最好;听力障碍群体的持续注意技能与听力正常群体没有显著差异,但是前者表现出随着时间的过去,依然能够很好地将注意维持在当前任务中。 (2)听力障碍群体和听力正常群体的视觉注意能力发展有很大的差异:在童年中期,听力障碍儿童的视觉注意技能发展速度慢于听力正常儿童;年龄较大的童年中期听力障碍儿童的选择性视觉注意技能要差于相应的听力正常儿童,但是随着年龄的增长而慢慢地得到补偿,且到成人期,听力障碍成人的选择性视觉技能要稍优于听力正常成人。 (3)听力障碍和听力正常的童年中期儿童和青少年在视觉注意空间分配上相似。在低负载的情况下,两者都表现出受到中心分心物的更大干扰;而在高负载的情况下,只有听力障碍成人对边缘视觉处的分心物进行更多的加工,也即将更多的注意资源分配到视野的边缘。 (4)听力障碍被试和听力正常被试表现出相似的加工模式,即对单一的颜色特征目标的搜索表现出平行加工,而对方向、颜色方向的混合特征目标的搜索表现出系列加工;并且两组被试在注意控制方面的表现也一样。 综上所述,听觉通道信息的输入是儿童早期视觉注意发展的一个重要条件。因为不同感觉通道相互作用,在一个感觉通道的损害初期可能对其他感觉通道产生不良影响,但是正是由于一个感觉通道受损而使其他感觉通道的使用增加,从而使其他感觉通道的功能在随后得到提高。
其他摘要One of the most important functions in the individual development is the interaction and integration of each sensory input. There exist two competing theories, i.e. the deficiency theory and the compensatory theory, regarding the origin and nature of changes in visual functions observed after auditory deprivation. The deficiency theory proposed that integrative processes are essential for normal development. In contrast, the compensatory theory stated that the loss of one sense may be met by a greater reliance upon, therefore an enhancement of the remaining senses. Given that hearing impaired children’s learning depends primarily on visual information, it is important to recognize the differences of visual attention between them and their hearing age-mates. Differences among age groups could exist in either selectivity or sustained attention. Study 1 and study 2 explored the selective and sustained attention development of hearing impaired and hearing students with average cognitive ability, aged from 7 years to college students. The analysis and discussion of the results are based on the visual attention development as well as deficiency theory and compensatory theory. According to the results of the study 1 and study 2, the spatial distribution and controlling of the visual attention between hearing impaired and hearing students were also investigated in the study 3 and study 4. The present work showed that: Firstly, both hearing impaired and hearing participants had the similar developmental trajectory of the sustained attention. The ability of children’s sustained attention appeared to improve with age, and in adolescence it reached the peak. The hearing impaired participants had the comparable sustained attention skills to the matched hearing ones. Besides, the results of the hearing impaired participants showed that they could maintain their attention and vigilance on the current task over the observation period. Secondly, group differences of visual attention development were found between hearing impaired and hearing participants. In the childhood, the visual attention developmental speed of the hearing impaired children was slower than that of the hearing ones. The selective attention skill of the hearing impaired were not comparable to the hearing ones, however, their selective skill improved with age, so in the adulthood, hearing impaired students showed the slight advantage in the selective attention skill over the hearing ones. Thirdly, hearing impaired and hearing participants showed the similar spatial distribution in the attention resources. In the low perceptual load condition, both participants were suffered great interference of the distrator at the fixation. In contrast, in the high perceptual load condition, hearing impaired adults were suffered more interference of the peripheral distractor, which suggested that they distributed more attention resources to the peripheral field when faced difficult tasks. Fourthly, both groups showed similar processing in the visual attention tasks. That is, they both searched the target with only the color feature in a parallel way, but in a serial way while processing orientation feature and the features with the combination of the color and orientation. Furthermore, the results indicated that two groups show similar ways in the attention controlling. In summary, the present study showed that visual attention development was dependent upon the integration of multimodal sensory information. Because of the interaction and integration of the input from various sensory, it has a negative impact on the intact sensory at the early stage of one sensory loss, however, it can better the functions of other intact sensory gradually with development and practice.
页数112
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4554
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张兴利. 听力障碍与听力正常群体视觉注意发展及其机制的比较[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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