感激与利他:从特质与情境的角度考察感激对利他倾向和行为的影响
其他题名Gratitude and Altruism: Exploring the Effect of Gratitude on Altruistic Tendency and Behavior from Perspective of Trait and Situation
张镇
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2009-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词感激 利他 利他行为 特质感激(感激特质) 情境感激(感激情境)
摘要感激作为一种道德情感和特质的功能日益受到社会心理学家的关注。研究表明,感激不仅驱动受助者回报施助者, 而且会激发针对第三方的利他行为。近年来,研究者或者通过相关研究考察感激特质与利他行为倾向之间的关联,或者通过实验研究证实感激情境或事件对利他行为的影响。 本研究以中国大学生和社区居民为对象,通过五项子研究(包括三项问卷调查和八项实验研究),首次从特质与情境的角度系统探索了感激对一般利他倾向以及三种条件下利他行为的影响。其中大学生样本1769人,社区居民332人。主要结果如下: 首先,相关研究的结果表明,无论是大学生群体,还是社区居民群体,特质感激与利他行为倾向之间都存在显著相关。在对社会称许性、“大五”人格和感激心境等变量控制后,感激-利他的显著相关仍然存在,感激特质仍能单独预测利他行为。 其次,实验研究表明,感激特质会影响利他行为倾向,感激特质越高,利他倾向越高;感激情境也会影响利他行为倾向,相对于低感激情境和控制条件,高感激情境会增强利他行为倾向。 第三,感激特质与感激情境对一般利他倾向和行为存在交互效应。高感激特质者较少受情境的影响,而低感激特质者更容易受感激情境的唤起而强化利他行为。这种交互效应在利他行为变量的三个方面具体表现为: (1)针对不同对象的利他行为:低感激特质者更容易受情境启动,从而增强针对陌生人(而不是亲人和朋友)的利他行为倾向。 (2)针对利他行为的“接受者”角色:对于低感激特质者,感激情境的唤起不仅导致更多的“付出”,还导致更多的“接纳”和更少的“拒绝”。 (3)针对不同代价的利他行为:对于低感激特质者,感激情境会增强低代价利他行为,而高代价的利他行为更多地受感激特质的影响。
其他摘要Recently, as a moral affect and trait, gratitude has been acquiring growing attention in social psychology. Previous research showed those who are grateful were motivated not only to reciprocate the benefactor, but also to make altruistic behavior towards other people. By reviewing previous studies, we found two approaches on exploring the gratitude-altruism link: one is to examine the relationship of correlation between gratitude being a personality trait and altruistic tendency using questionnaires as research method; another is to probe into the causality of gratitude and altruistic behaviors by experimental methods. The present research consists of five studies combining correlative studies and experimental designs, trying to explore the effect of gratitude on altruistic tendency and altruistic behavior from perspective of trait and situation. Participants are 1769 Chinese undergraduates and 332 community residents. Firstly, results of study one showed dispositional gratitude was significantly positively correlated with altruistic tendency: higher dispositional gratitude, higher altruistic tendency. When social desirability, Big Five, and grateful mood were controlled, the correlation of gratitude and altruism still remained relatively significant. Secondly, results of the most experiments showed: main effects of both dispositional gratitude and situational gratitude were significant. For example, people with high dispositional gratitude showed higher altruistic tendency than people with low dispositional gratitude; People in high condition of gratitude arousing showed higher altruistic tendency than people in low condition of gratitude arousing as well as the control group. Thirdly, data analyses showed that the interaction effect of dispositional gratitude and situational gratitude on general altruistic tendency and altruistic behavior was significant. Compared with people with high dispositional gratitude, those with low dispositional gratitude was relatively more sensitive to condition of gratitude arousing. The latter show enhanced altruistic tendency in condition of gratitude arousing than in control condition. This interaction effect was also represented in three different condition of altruistic behavior. (1) As for beneficiaries of altruistic behavior, people with low dispositional gratitude showed enhanced altruistic behavior in condition of gratitude arousing towards strangers rather than friends and relatives. (2) As for the receiver role of altruistic behavior, people with low dispositional gratitude showed less “reject” or more “acceptance” in condition of gratitude arousing than that of the control condition. (3) When it comes to the cost of altruistic behavior, people with low dispositional gratitude showed enhanced altruistic tendency in condition of gratitude arousing than that of the control condition. However, altruistic behaviors of high cost in real life were more affected by dispositional gratitude.
页数154
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4732
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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张镇. 感激与利他:从特质与情境的角度考察感激对利他倾向和行为的影响[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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