|其他题名||Semantic Features of Early-learned Mandarin Verbs and its Relation with Word Processing|
|关键词||汉语动词 身体部位 习得年龄 可表象性 学步儿|
介作用影响习得年龄。实验2 和实验3 对比了成人和儿童生活环境中动词与客体
|其他摘要|| Though verbs were harder to learn than nouns in English and other languages, Chinese children learn many verbs before three years old, only showing a weak ‘noun bias’. Previous study found that the imageability of early-learned Chinese verbs was higher than that of early-learned English verbs, but it was unclear why Chinese verbs were more imageable. This dissertation examined the semantic features of early-learned Mandarin verbs, and explored whether these features affected verb learning and verb processing in native speakers.|
In Study One, three experiments were carried out to examine the semantic features of early-learned Mandarin verbs and its relation with age of acquisition (AoA) of these verbs. The results of Exp. 1 showed that most early-learned Mandarin verbs were associated with specific body regions. Chinese children first learned verbs that were associated with hand, then verbs that were associated with mouth, legs and other body regions. The number of body regions that a verb was associated with could explain 12% of the variance of imageability, and it affected AoA with the partial mediation effect of imageability. In Exp. 2 and 3, verb-object associations in adults' and children's living environment were compared. The results showed that verb-object associations in children's life were narrower than that in adults' life. However, verb-object associations did not influence AoA of these verbs.
In Study Two, three experiments were conducted to explore how semantic features and AoA influence verb processing. In Exp. 4, the results of verb naming task in adults revealed the effects of AoA and orthographic regularity, and it was found that the effects of oral AoA and written AoA could be separated. Written AoA effect might be originated in the direct path (i.e., “orthography–phonology“), and it was moderated by orthography–phonology regularity (i.e., whether there was a phonetic component). While the effects of oral AoA and orthography–semantic regularity (i.e., whether there was a semantic component) might exist in the indirect path (i.e., “orthography–semantic-phonology“). In Exp.5, picture naming task was carried out in adults. Chinese verb names, naming latency, name agreement, familiarity and other variables were obtained for 265 action pictures. The result of stepwise regression analysis showed that name agreement (H value), familiarity and visual complexity could explain 73.6% of the variances in picture naming latency, but word frequency, AoA, and other variables were removed. In Exp. 6, toddlers (24-35 month old) and adults participated in action picture recognition task in eyelink experiment, which examined whether AoA of target verbs, and whether body regions of the target and non-target verbs were consistent could affect verb processing in children and adults. The results showed that the main effect of AoA was not significant, while the body part consistency and age group demonstrated main effects. Two-year-old toddlers could utilize the inconsistency of body regions to speed up verb recognition. Adults could utilize target onset and semantic cues (i.e., inconsistency of body regions) to recognize target picture swiftly. Moreover, a significant effect of body part consistency was found at at 250-450 ms time-window in adults and at 650-1200 ms time-window in toddlers in action picture recognition task.
In sum, the results of the dissertation found that most early-learned Chinese verbs were associated with specific body regions, and verb-body part associations influence AoA of these verbs with a mediation effect of imageability. This could partly explain why Chinese children learn so many verbs at a young age. Body part information not only affects verb learning, but also affects verb processing in both young children and adults. Thus it was suggested that body parts information was probably an important element in the semantic system of verbs. Moreover, the fact that effects of oral AoA and written AoA were separated in word naming task suggests that they might be originated in different paths in word naming. These findings promote our understanding of the semantic system of verbs, and open a discussion of how word learning affects word processing.
|陈永香. 早期习得动词的语义特征及其对词汇加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.|
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