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早期习得动词的语义特征及其对词汇加工的影响
其他题名Semantic Features of Early-learned Mandarin Verbs and its Relation with Word Processing
陈永香
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2013-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词汉语动词 身体部位 习得年龄 可表象性 学步儿
摘要       在英语等语言中,名词习得被认为有明显的优势,而动词习得相对更加困难。
然而,汉语儿童在三岁以前就习得了大量动词,仅表现出微弱的“名词优势”。
已有研究发现,汉语早期动词的可表象性比英语早期动词更高,但并不清楚这种
差异具体体现在什么方面。本研究较系统地考察了汉语早期动词的语义特征及其
对词汇习得与词汇加工的影响。
       研究一通过三个实验考察了汉语早期动词的语义特征及其与习得年龄之间
的关系。实验1 结果显示,汉语儿童早期习得的大部分动词都与特定身体部位有
联结关系。汉语儿童最早习得手部动词,其次是口部、腿部以及其他部位的动词。
动词联结的身体区域数可解释动词可表象性12%的变异,且以可表象性为部分中
介作用影响习得年龄。实验2 和实验3 对比了成人和儿童生活环境中动词与客体
的联结关系,结果发现,儿童生活环境中动词所联结的客体数量比成人更少,但
“动词-客体”联结关系并不影响动词的习得年龄。
       研究二通过三个实验考察了早期动词语义特性和习得年龄对词汇加工的影
响。实验4 发现,习得年龄和正字法规则性会影响成人的词汇命名反应时,且口
语和书面语习得年龄效应可分离。书面语习得年龄主要作用于“字形-语音”的
直接通路,并受到形音一致性(是否有声旁)的调节;而形义一致性(是否有义
符)和口语习得年龄主要作用于“字形-语义-语音”的间接通路。实验5 通过成
人图片命名任务,获得了265 张动词图片的中文名称、命名反应时、命名一致性、
熟悉度等指标。逐步回归分析结果发现,命名一致性(H 值)、熟悉性和图片复
杂度这三个变量可解释图片命名反应时73.6%的变异,而词频、习得年龄等变量
被排除。实验6 通过眼动实验考察了目标词的习得年龄、以及目标图与干扰图动
作发出的身体部位是否一致两个因素对学步儿(24-35 个月)和成人动词图片再
认的影响。结果发现,图片再认任务中习得年龄效应不显著,而身体部位一致性
和年龄组的主效应显著。两岁儿童即能够利用该语义信息来加速对动词图片的再
认。而成人可以充分利用首音、语义等信息快速再认动词图片。身体部位一致性
早期习得动词的语义特征及其对词汇加工的影响对成人图片再认的影响在250-450ms
时间窗口显著,对儿童的影响在650-1200ms时间窗口显著。
      本研究发现,大部分汉语早期动词都与特定身体部位有联结关系,且动词-
身体部位联结以可表象性为中介作用影响动词的习得年龄,这一结果有助于解释
为何汉语儿童早期习得大量动词。身体部位信息不仅影响动词的习得顺序,还影
响儿童和成人对动词的加工。因此,本研究提出动词发出的身体部位可能是动词
语义系统的重要组成部分。此外,本研究初步分离了口语和书面语习得年龄效应,
并提出它们在词汇命名中可能作用于不同的加工通路。这些发现深化了我们对动
词语义系统的认识,同时也启发我们进一步思考词汇学习对词汇加工的影响。
其他摘要    Though verbs were harder to learn than nouns in English and other languages, Chinese children learn many verbs before three years old, only showing a weak ‘noun bias’. Previous study  found that the imageability of early-learned Chinese verbs was higher than that of early-learned English verbs, but it was unclear why Chinese verbs were more imageable. This dissertation examined the semantic features of early-learned Mandarin verbs, and explored whether these features affected verb learning and verb processing in native speakers.
    In Study One, three experiments were carried out to examine the semantic features of early-learned Mandarin verbs and its relation with age of acquisition (AoA) of these verbs. The results of Exp. 1 showed that most early-learned Mandarin verbs were associated with specific body regions. Chinese children first learned verbs that were associated with hand, then verbs that were associated with mouth, legs and other body regions. The number of body regions that a verb was associated with could explain 12% of the variance of imageability, and it affected AoA with the partial mediation effect of imageability. In Exp. 2 and 3, verb-object associations in adults' and children's living environment were compared. The results showed that verb-object associations in children's life were narrower than that in adults' life. However, verb-object associations did not influence AoA of these verbs.
    In Study Two, three experiments were conducted to explore how semantic features and AoA influence verb processing. In Exp. 4, the results of verb naming task in adults revealed the effects of AoA and orthographic regularity, and it was found that the effects of oral AoA and written AoA could be separated. Written AoA effect might be originated in the direct path (i.e., “orthography–phonology“), and it was moderated by orthography–phonology regularity (i.e., whether there was a phonetic component). While the effects of oral AoA and orthography–semantic regularity (i.e., whether there was a semantic component) might exist in the indirect path (i.e., “orthography–semantic-phonology“). In Exp.5, picture naming task was carried out in adults. Chinese verb names, naming latency, name agreement, familiarity and other variables were obtained for 265 action pictures. The result of stepwise regression analysis showed that name agreement (H value), familiarity and visual complexity could explain 73.6% of the variances in picture naming latency, but word frequency, AoA, and other variables were removed. In Exp. 6, toddlers (24-35 month old) and adults participated in action picture recognition task in eyelink experiment, which examined whether AoA of target verbs, and whether body regions of the target and non-target verbs were consistent could affect verb processing in children and adults. The results showed that the main effect of AoA was not significant, while the body part consistency and age group demonstrated main effects. Two-year-old toddlers could utilize the inconsistency of body regions to speed up verb recognition. Adults could utilize target onset and semantic cues (i.e., inconsistency of body regions) to recognize target picture swiftly. Moreover, a significant effect of body part consistency was found at at 250-450 ms time-window in adults and at 650-1200 ms time-window in toddlers in action picture recognition task.
    In sum, the results of the dissertation found that most early-learned Chinese verbs were  associated with specific body regions, and verb-body part associations influence AoA of these verbs with a mediation effect of imageability. This could partly explain why Chinese children learn so many verbs at a young age. Body part information not only affects verb learning, but also affects verb processing in both young children and adults. Thus it was suggested that body parts information was probably an important element in the semantic system of verbs. Moreover, the fact that effects of oral AoA and written AoA were separated in word naming task suggests that they might be originated in different paths in word naming. These findings promote our understanding of the semantic system of verbs, and open a discussion of how word learning affects word processing.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种英语
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19495
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈永香. 早期习得动词的语义特征及其对词汇加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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