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视觉大细胞通路与汉字阅读的关系探究
其他题名An exploration of the relationship between the visual magnocellular stream and Chinese character reading
赵婧
学位类型博士
导师毕鸿燕
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词视觉大细胞通路 汉字阅读 空间频率 时间频率 发展性阅读障碍
摘要阅读过程起始于对文字信息的视觉编码,视觉大细胞通路是人类主要的视觉传导通路之一,其主要包括两种特性:高时间分辨性和低空间频率敏感性。已有研究(特别是发展性阅读障碍的研究)表明,视觉大细胞通路与阅读过程联系紧密。以往关注大细胞通路与阅读关系的研究大多是在拼音文字背景下的,由于汉字字形结构的复杂性,视觉分析在汉字阅读过程中起着非常重要的作用。所以探究视觉大细胞通路功能与汉字阅读的关系是十分必要和有意义的,但目前汉语相关的研究仍较为欠缺。
本研究以成人大学生和小学儿童为被试,结合行为测量与脑电技术系统地探查了大细胞通路时间、空间频率敏感性与汉字阅读技能的相关关系。同时,本研究直接调节汉字材料的空间频率以区分视觉大细胞通路条件与控制条件,并采用整字/部件判断任务来对应汉字识别过程,通过对比有、无大细胞通路缺陷的汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的汉字识别模式,以探查阅读障碍的大细胞通路缺陷对汉字阅读的可能影响机制。本研究结果表明:
(1)成熟阅读者大细胞通路时间、空间频率敏感性均与汉字正字法技能显著相关,同时其时间分辨性还与语音意识有关。脑电研究结果显示,大细胞通路时间频率敏感条件下的P1 峰值波幅与语音意识显著相关,而空间频率敏感条件下的N1 波幅与汉字正字法密切相关,表现出两种相关模式在时间维度上的分离。
(2)汉语小学儿童大细胞通路时间、空间频率特性在行为层面上均与语音技能紧密相关;同时大细胞通路空间频率敏感性也表现出类似于成人的结果,与正字法技能显著相关。脑电结果显示,大细胞通路时间频率敏感条件下的N1 峰值波幅与语音意识显著相关,空间频率条件下的P1 波幅与正字法技能相关。
(3)无大细胞通路功能缺陷的阅读障碍儿童与同年龄控制组儿童在大细胞通路条件下均表现出显著的整体优势效应,说明了大细胞通路低空间频率敏感性对汉字整体识别的促进作用;而此效应在有大细胞通路缺陷的阅读障碍儿童中不显著。
本研究结果说明虽然成人与小学儿童大细胞通路功能与汉字阅读技能的相关模式存在相似性,但总体而言,小学儿童大细胞通路功能与语音技能相关更显著,而成人大细胞通路功能与正字法技能更为相关。这种不同年龄段被试间相关模式的差异可能反映出一种阅读习得中由侧重语音到关注正字法的发展过程。同时,基于有、无大细胞通路缺陷阅读障碍儿童在汉字识别过程上的比较可推测,汉语阅读障碍儿童的大细胞通路缺陷可能是通过影响其汉字整体识别,进而阻碍阅读过程。
其他摘要Reading starts from the visual coding of printed text, and one of the visual streams for human beings is the magnocellular (M) pathway which is sensitive to visual stimuli of high temporal frequency and low spatial frequency. Previous studies (especially researches on developmental dyslexia) have found the close relationship between the visual M function and reading. However, most of previous studies were in the context of alphabetic languages. Given that the visual forms of Chinese characters are complicated, the visual analysis played an important role in Chinese reading. Accordingly, it is necessary to explore the relationship between visual M stream and Chinese character reading. To our knowledge, there have been few relevant researches in Chinese.
The present study tried to investigate the relationship between the visual M function (respectively including the temporal and spatial function) and Chinese character reading among adults and children through the behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Meanwhile, the present study directly manipulated the spatial frequency of Chinese characters to separate the visual M condition from the visual control condition, with adopting the global/local decision task to reflect the Chinese character recognition. A group of dyslexics with a normal M stream (M-normal DD) and a group of dyslexics with an impaired M stream (M-impaired DD) were recuited. By comparing the performance of Chinese character recognition between the two groups of dyslexics, we tried to explore how the M deficit in dyslexics affected Chinese character reading. The current results showed as below:
(1) For the adults, the temporal and spatial functions of visual M stream were both significantly correlated with orthographic skills, and the temporal resolution was also related with phonological awareness. Results of ERP data exhibited that, the P1 amplitude in the temporal condition of M stream was closely related with scores in phonological awareness test, and N1 amplitude in spatial condition of M stream was related with Chinese orthographic processing, revealing the dissociation in the time process.
(2) As to the children from primary schools, the temporal and spatial function of their visual M stream were both related with performance in phonolgical awareness test; meanwhile, the spatial-frequency sensitivity of M stream was also related with orthographic skills, similar with the adult pattern. Results of ERP data showed that, the peak amplitude of N1 component in temporal condition of visual M stream was related with phonological awareness while the P1 amplitude in spatial condition of M stream was related with Chinese orthographic skills.
(3) In the global/local decision task, M-normal DD and age-matched normal readers both showed a significant effect of global advantage in visual M condition, revealing the spatial-frequency sensitivity might contribute to the global recognition of Chinese characters; however, the global precedence effect was absent in M-impaired DD.
The present findings revealed that, although the adults and children showed similar patterns of the relationship between the visual M function and Chinese character reading, the visual M function tended to relate with Chinese phonology for children while M function was more closely related with orthographic skills for adults. This difference between adults and children might reflect a transfer from the reliance on phonological strategy to focusing on the orthographic processing during the reading acquistion of Chinese. Meanwhile, based on the comparison of the Chinese character recognition between M-normal and M-impaired DDs, it could be supposed that the M deficits in Chinese dyslexic childen might negatively affect their global recognition of Chinese characters, which might further impede the reading procedure.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19778
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵婧. 视觉大细胞通路与汉字阅读的关系探究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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