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小学儿童空间方位传递性推理能力的实验研究
其他题名An Experiment on the Spatial Transitive Reasoning Ability of Primary School Children
毕鸿燕
学位类型博士
导师方格
2001-03
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词小学儿童 空间方位传递性推理 心理模型理论 策略
摘要

   木研究探杏了7岁、9岁、11岁儿童的空间方位传递性推理能力的发展水平,从刺激材料、前捉数力.,模型数量、空间方位维度等角度考察了制约小学)七童传递性推理能力发展的因素。同时,对心理模型理沦进行了检验,并初步探

查了,儿童的推理策略。

    主要结果如下:

    1从小学7岁到11岁,儿童的传递性推理能力明显提高,但在不同的推理任务中,能力的发展趋势是不一样的。

    小学儿童的推理能力是从一维向两维发展的,7岁儿童虽然初步具有了一维空间方位推理能力,但还不具备两维空间方位推理能力:9岁儿童己基本具有了一维空间方位推理能力,开始萌发了两维空间方位推理能力;11岁儿童己具有了一维空}'}J方位推理能力,对两维空I}}J方位的推理能力虽也有所发展,但总体水平还是比较低的。

    2小学儿童推理的稳定性水平随年龄增长而显著提高。7岁儿童和9岁儿童的推理能力还不稳定,11岁儿童的推理能力接近稳定水平。

    3随着年龄的增长,通过建构模型解决问题的儿童越来越多。少数童能通过模型建构策略来解决问题;大部分9岁儿童能使用这一策略;绝大部分11岁儿童都能使用这一策略解决问题。

即使儿童使用了模型建构策略,他们的推理成绩也没有反映出模型数量所造成的任务难度的差异。

    4对不同的刺激材料,,儿童进行推理所使用的策略有所不同。在图形刺激材料下儿童使用最多的是知觉策略,尤其是7岁组儿童。在文字刺激材料下,使用模型建构策略的儿童比图形刺激材料下的多。

    5空间方位维度数量和刺激材料对小学儿童的传递性推理有显著影响。

    儿童在一维空间方位条件下的推理能力高于两维空间方位;儿童对图形刺激材料的推理成绩高于文字刺激材料。

前提数量对小学儿童空间方位传递性推理的影响仅表现在一维空间方位双模型文字刺激材料条件下,在这种条件下,前提数量的增加导致了推理成绩的下降。

其他摘要

The main purpose was to investigate the development of elementary schoolers aged 7-, 9-,I I-year-olds in spatial transitive inference and tried to explore the correlative restricting factors from the points of experimental material, number of premises, number of models, number of spatial dimensions. At the same time, the mental model theory was examined, and the strategies children used during reasoning were analyzed preliminarily.
The main results are as follows:
1 .Children's ability of the spatial transitive reasoning increased significantly.
The transitive reasoning ability was developed from one spatial dimension to two spatial dimensions. The 7-year-olds developed the reasoning ability under one dimension, but they hadn't the ability under two spatial dimensions; the 9-year-olds had preliminarily possessed the ability under one dimension, with this kind of ability bourgeoned under two dimensions; the 11-year-olds had possessed the ability under one dimension, and had developed the ability under two dimensions a little, but at a relatively low level in total.
2. "fhe stability of children's reasoning increased significantly with age. 7-year-olds and 9-year-olds had quite instable reasoning ability, whereas the ability of 11-year-olds was basically stable.
3. The number of Children using the model constructing strategy to resolve problems became more and more with age: Only a small amount of 7-year-olds were able to.make use of the model constructing strategy; whereas most 9-year-olds arrdvearly all 11-year-olds were able to use it. asl seduse Even if children had used the model constructing strategy, the difference among diffculty caused by the number of models isn't reflected by their reasoning performance.
4. Children used different strategies when different materials were presented. Children perception strategy mostly under figure materials, especially 7-year-olds. They tended to model construct strategy more under word materials than under figure materials.
5. The number of spatial dimensions and experimental materials had effects on children's transitive inference. Children's performance under one dimension of space was better than that under two dimensions.
Children's performance of figure materials was better than that of word materials.
The influence of the number of premises on children's spatial transitive reasoning emerged only under the condition of one dimension of space, double model word material, which showed that the increase of the number of premises led to the decrease of reasoning performance.

学科领域认知发展心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21263
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
毕鸿燕. 小学儿童空间方位传递性推理能力的实验研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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