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语言理解能力的个体差异与抑制
其他题名The Individual Difference in Language Comprehension Skill and the Inhibition Mechanism
杨丽霞
学位类型博士
导师陈永明
1999-12
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知心理学
关键词多媒语言理解测试 抑制机制 综合语言理解能力 干扰信息
摘要

 本研究对汉语综合语言理解能力不同的被试在词汇与句子加工过程中的抑制机制进行实验研究。首先,根据Gernsbacher和Varner的多媒理解量表,编制了多媒语言理解测试程序以测试汉语综合语言理解能力,并与国内莫雷编制的文章的阅读理解测试进行相关分析。根据ail!!试结果,筛选出汉语综合语言理解能力高、低不同的两组被试。然后,采用移动窗口阅读与选择性再认相结合的实验范式,通过在要求加工的目标材料中插入外在语言干扰信息的方法,研究两组被试在抑制机制上的差别。实验中采用自控速与固定速两种任务速度控制方式,从意义性与语义关系性两个维度考察了干扰材料性质的影响。意义性维度指干扰材料是有意义的词还是无意义的非词;语义关系性维度是指干扰材料与目标材料之间的语义联系,在词汇水平为范畴关系性,在句子水平则为话题关系性。
主要结果与结论如下:
1多媒语言理解测试与文章的阅读理解测试有显著相关,可以用来筛选梦合语言理解能力高、低不同的两组被试。
2抑制机制的效率与干扰材料的性质有关,越有意义、与目标材料语义关系越密切的干扰越难以被抑制。
3在词汇加工中,干扰材料的性质对语言理解能力不同的两组被试的影响也不同,对语言理解能力低的被试影响更为明显;在句子加工中,干扰材料的性质对两组被试的影响没有显著差别。
4抑制效率受到任务速度控制方式的影响。自控速可以帮助语言理解能力低的人提高抑制干扰的效率;但这种改善的程度与干扰材料的干扰强度及加工水平有关,在低水平的词汇加工中作用更明显;干扰强度增大时,这种改善作用逐渐降低。
5语言理解能力与抑制外在语言干扰信息的能力有关,语言理解能力低的人抑制的效率也低。
本研究首次利用插入外在语言干扰信息的方法,在自控速与固定速两种条件下,从实时((on-line)的阅读时间与延时((oil line)的再认反应两个指标对汉语语言加工过程中的抑制机制进行了考察。根据研究结果,可以得出如下结论:在汉语词汇与句子的加工过程中,语言理解能力不同的人抑制外在语言干扰信息的效率也不同,理解能力低的人抑制机制的效率更低。结合表征建构与认知资源两种理论,提出资源限制的结构建造模型,对本研究的结果进行讨论与分析。

其他摘要

     The main purpose was to examine the inhibition mechanisms of skilled and less-skilled language comprehenders. General Chinese comprehension skill was tested with Multi-Media  Language Comprehension Test (MMLCT)  modified from Gernsbacher&Varner's Multi-Media Comprehension Battery (MMCB). Reading comprehension skill was also tested with Text Reading Comprehension Test (TRCT), a test constructed by Molei. The correlation between the two tests was analyzed. Based on the scores of MMLCT, two groups of subjects, skilled and less-skilled language comprehenders were selected. A paradigm combined Moving Window with selective recognition task was used in a series of experiments to examine the effect of the two groups to inhibit external distractors at lexical and sentence processing levels.
The main results and conclusions are as follows:
     1 .MMLCT and TRCT results were significantly correlated. It was feasible to select skilled and less-skilled comprehenders as the subjects by their MMLCT scores.
    2. The properties of the distractors had effects on the inhibition mechanism. The more meaningful and semanticly relevant the distractors are, the more diffcult they will be.inhibited.
    3. At the lexical level, the properties of distractors had greater effects on less-  skilled..eomprehenders. However. thev had the same effects on the two eroups at the   sentence ieve}.
    4. Task pace had an effect on the inhibition mechanism. Self-paced task can help less-skilled comprehenders to improve their inhibiting effect. But this benefit effect decreased with the intensity of the distractors.
    5. Language comprehension skill was related to the inhibition mechanism when there was external distractive language information. Less-skilled comprehenders exhibited a weaker inhibition mechanism, especially at the sentence level.
    In this study, a new method of externally inserting language distractors under self-paced, and forced-paced conditions was used to investigate the inhibition mechanism in Chinese language processing. It can be concluded that at Chinese lexical and' sentence processing levels, subjects with different comprehension skills exhibited a difference in the effect of inhibiting external distractive information. Less-skilled comprehenders showed a weaker inhibition mechanism.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21296
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨丽霞. 语言理解能力的个体差异与抑制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,1999.
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